The Japanese Suzaku X-ray telescope has just taken a close look at the Perseus galaxy cluster, and revealed it’s got a bit of a spare tire.
Suzaku explored faint X-ray emission of hot gas across two swaths of the Perseus Galaxy Cluster. The resulting images, which record X-rays with energies between 700 and 7,000 electron volts in a combined exposure of three days, are shown in the two false-color strips above. Bluer colors indicate less intense X-ray emission. The dashed circle is 11.6 million light-years across and marks the so-called virial radius, where cold gas is now entering the cluster. Red circles indicate X-ray sources not associated with the cluster.
The results appear in today’s issue of Science.
Lead author Aurora Simionescu, an astrophysicist at Stanford, and her colleagues note that until now, most observations of galaxy clusters have focused on their bright interiors. The Suzaku telescope was able to peer more closely at the outskirts of the Perseus cluster. The resulting census of baryonic matter (protons and neutrons of gas and metals) compared to dark matter offers some surprising observations.
It turns out the fraction of baryonic matter to dark matter at Perseus’s center was consistent with measurements for the universe as a whole, but the baryonic fraction unexpectedly exceeds the universal average on the cluster’s outskirts.
“The apparent baryon fraction exceeds the cosmic mean at larger radii, suggesting a clumpy distribution of the gas, which is important for understanding the ongoing growth of clusters from the surrounding cosmic web,” the authors write in the new paper.