Titan’s Lakes are Nice and Calm. The Perfect Spot for a Landing

Ever since the Cassini orbiter and the Huygens lander provided us with the first detailed glimpse of Saturn’s moon Titan, scientists have been eager to mount new missions to this mysterious moon. Between its hydrocarbon lakes, its surface dunes, its incredibly dense atmosphere, and the possibility of it having an interior ocean, there is no shortage of things that are worthy of research.

The only question is, what form would this mission take (i.e. aerial drone, submarine, balloon, lander) and where should it set down? According to a new study led by the University of Texas at Austin, Titan’s methane lakes are very calm and do not appear to experience high waves. As such, these seas may be the ideal place for future missions to set down on the moon.

Their study, which was titled “Surface Roughness of Titan’s Hydrocarbon Seas“, appeared in the June 29th issue of the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Led by Cyril Grima, a research associate at the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), the team behind the study sought to determine just how active the lakes are in Titan’s northern polar region are.

Titan’s three largest lakes and their surrounding areas as seen by the Cassini RADAR instrument. The researchers used the instrument to study waves on the lake surfaces. Credit: Cyril Grima/ The University of Texas at Austin

As Grima explained in a University of Texas press release, this research also shed light on the meteorological activity on Titan:

“There’s a lot of interest in one day sending probes to the lakes, and when that’s done, you want to have a safe landing, and you don’t want a lot of wind. Our study shows that because the waves aren’t very high, the winds are likely low.”

Towards this end, Grima and his colleagues examined radar data obtained by the Cassini mission during Titan’s early summer season. This consisted of measurements of Titan’s northern lakes, which included Ontario Lacus,  Ligeia Mare, Punga Mare, and Kraken Mare. The largest of the three, Kraken Mars, is estimated to be larger than the Caspian Sea – i.e. 4,000,000 km² (1,544,409 mi²) vs 3,626,000 km2 (1,400,000 mi²).

With the help of the Cassini RADAR Team and researchers from Cornell University, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL), NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and elsewhere, the team applied a technique known as radar statistical reconnaissance. Developed by Grima, this technique relies on radar data to measure the roughness of surfaces in minute detail.

This technique has also been used to measure snow density and the surface roughness of ice in Antarctica and the Arctic. Similarly, NASA has used the technique for the sake of selecting a landing site on Mars for their Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (Insight) lander, which is scheduled to launch next year.

The left image shows a mosaic of images of Titan taken by the Cassini spacecraft in near infrared light. Titan’s polar seas are visible as sunlight glints off of them. The right image is a radar image of Kraken Mare. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
The left image shows a mosaic of images of Titan taken by the Cassini spacecraft in near infrared light. Titan’s polar seas are visible as sunlight glints off of them. The right image is a radar image of Kraken Mare. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

From this, Grima and his colleagues determined that waves on these lakes are quite small, reaching only 1 cm in height and 20 cm in length. These findings indicate that these lakes would be a serene enough environment that future probes could make soft landings on them and then begin the task of exploring the surface of the moon. As with all bodies, waves on Titan could be wind-driven, triggered by tidal flows, or the result of rain or debris.

As a result, these results are calling into question what scientists think about seasonal change on Titan. In the past, it was believed that summer on Titan was the beginning of moon’s windy season. But if this were the case, the results would have indicated higher waves (the result of higher winds). As Alex Hayes, an assistant professor of astronomy at Cornell University and a co-author on the study, explained:

“Cyril’s work is an independent measure of sea roughness and helps to constrain the size and nature of any wind waves. From the results, it looks like we are right near the threshold for wave generation, where patches of the sea are smooth and patches are rough.”

These results are also exciting for scientists who are hoping to plot future missions to Titan, especially by those who are hoping to see a robotic submarine sent to Titan’s to investigate its lakes for possible signs of life. Other mission concepts involve exploring Titan’s interior ocean, its surface, and its atmosphere for the sake of learning more about the moon’s environment, its organic-rich environment and probiotic chemistry.

And who knows? Maybe, just maybe, these missions will find that life in our Solar System is more exotic than we give it credit before, going beyond the carbon-based life that we are familiar with to include the methanogenic.

Further Reading: University of Texas JSG, Earth and Planetary Science Letters

Saturn’s Moon Titan

Titan's dense, hydrocarbon rich atmosphere remains a focal point of scientific research. Credit: NASA

In ancient Greek lore, the Titans were giant deities of incredible strength who ruled during the legendary Golden Age and gave birth to the Olympian gods we all know and love. Saturn‘s largest moon, known as Titan, is therefore appropriately named. In addition to being Saturn’s largest moon – and the second-largest moon in the Solar System (after Jupiter’s moon Ganymede) – it is larger by volume than even the smallest planet, Mercury.

Beyond its size, Titan is also fascinating because it is the only natural satellite known to have a dense atmosphere, a fact which has made it very difficult to study until recently. On top of all that, it is the only object other than Earth where clear evidence of stable bodies of surface liquid has been found. All of this makes Titan the focal point of a great deal of curiosity, and a prime location for future scientific missions.

Discovery and Naming:

Titan was discovered on March 25th, 1655, by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens. Huygens had been inspired by Galileo’s improvements in telescopes and his discovery of moons circling Jupiter in 1610. By 1650, he went about developing a telescope of his own with the help of his brother (Constantijn Huygens, Jr.) and observed the first moon of Saturn.

In 1655, Huygens named it Saturni Luna (Latin for “Saturn’s moon”) in a tract De Saturni Luna Observatio Nova (“A New Observation of Saturn’s Moon”). As Giovanni Domenico Cassini discoveries four more moons around Saturn between 1673 and 1686, astronomers began to refer to them as Saturn I through V (with Titan being in the fourth position as Saturn IV).

A replica of the telescope which William Herschel used to observe Uranus. Credit:
A replica of the telescope which William Herschel used to observe Uranus. Credit: Alun Salt/Wikimedia Commons

After William Herschel’s discovery of Mimas and Enceladus in 1789, which are closer to Saturn than any of the larger moons, Saturn’s moons once again had to be re-designated. Thenceforth, Titan status became fixed as Saturn VI, despite the discovery of several smaller moons that were closer to Saturn since then.

The name Titan, along with the names for all the seven major satellites of Saturn, were suggested by William Herschel’s son, John. In 1847, John Herschel published Results of Astronomical Observations Made at the Cape of Good Hope, in which he suggested that the moons be named after the mythological Titans – the brothers and sisters of Cronus, who is the Greek equivalent to Saturn.

In 1907, Spanish astronomer Josep Comas i Solà observed limb darkening of Titan. This effect, where the center part of a planet or star appears brighter than the edge (or limb), was the first indication that Titan had an atmosphere. In 1944, Gerard P. Kuiper used a spectroscopic technique to determine that Titan had an atmosphere composed of methane.

Size. Mass and Orbit:

With a mean radius of 2576 ± 2 km and a mass of 1.345 × 1023 kg, Titan is 0.404 the size of Earth (or 1.480 Moons) and 0.0225 times as massive (1.829 Moons). Its orbit has a minor eccentricity of 0.0288, and its orbital plane is inclined 0.348 degrees relative to Saturn’s equator. It’s average distance from Saturn (semi-major axis) is 1,221,870 km – ranging from 1,186,680 km at periapsis (closest) to 1,257,060 km at apoapsis (farthest).

Diameter comparison of Titan, Moon, and Earth. Credit: NASA/GJPL/regory H. Revera
Diameter comparison of Titan, the Moon, and Earth. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute/Gregory H. Revera

Titan takes 15 days and 22 hours to complete a single orbit of Saturn. Like the Moon and many satellites that orbit the other gas giants, its rotational period is identical to its orbital period. Thus, Titan is tidally-locked and in a synchronous rotation with Saturn, which means one face is permanently pointed towards the planet.

Composition and Surface Features:

Though similar in composition to Dione and Enceladus, Titan is denser due to gravitational compression. In terms of diameter and mass (and hence density) Titan is more similar to the Jovian moons of Ganymede and Callisto. Based on its bulk density of 1.88 g/cm3, Titan’s composition is believed to consist half of water ice and half of rocky material.

It’s internal makeup is likely differentiated into several layers, with a 3,400-kilometre (2,100 mi) rocky center surrounded by layers composed of different forms of crystalized ice. Based on evidence provided by the Cassini-Huygens mission in 2005, it is believed that Titan may also have a subsurface ocean which exists between the crust and several deeper layers of high-pressure ice.

This subsurface ocean is believed to be made up of water and ammonia, which allows the water to remain in a liquid state even at temperatures as low as 176 K (-97 °C). Evidence of a systematic shift of the moon’s surface features (which took place between October 2005 and May 2007) suggests that the crust is decoupled from the interior – possibly by a liquid layer in between – as well as the way the gravity field varies as Titan orbits Saturn.

iagram of the internal structure of Titan according to the fully differentiated dense-ocean model. Credit: Wikipedia Commons/Kelvinsong
Diagram of the internal structure of Titan according to the fully differentiated dense-ocean model. Credit: Wikipedia Commons/Kelvinsong

The surface of Titan is relatively young – between 100 million and 1 billion years old – despite having been formed during the early Solar System. In addition, it appears to be relatively smooth, with impact craters having been filled in. Height variation is also low, ranging by little more than 150 meters, but with the occasional mountain reaching between 500 meters and 1 km in height.

This is believed to due to geological processes which have reshaped Titan’s surface over time. For example, a range measuring 150 km (93 mi) long, 30 km (19 mi) wide, and 1.5 km (0.93 mi) tall has been potted in the southern hemisphere, composed of icy material and covered in methane snow. The movement of tectonic plates, perhaps influenced by a nearby impact basin, could have opened a gap through which the mountain’s material upwelled.

Then there is Sotra Patera, a chain of mountains that is 1000 to 1500 m (0.62 and 0.93 mi) in height, has some peaks topped by craters, and what appears to be frozen lava flows at its base. If volcanism on Titan really exists, the hypothesis is that it is driven by energy released from the decay of radioactive elements within the mantle, tidal flexing caused by Saturn’s influence, or possibly the interaction of Titan’s subsurface ice layers.

An alternate theory is that Titan is a geologically dead world and that the surface is shaped by a combination of impact cratering, flowing-liquid and wind-driven erosion, mass wasting and other externally-motivated processes. According to this hypothesis, methane is not emitted by volcanoes but slowly diffuses out of Titan’s cold and stiff interior.

Updated maps of Titan, based on the Cassini imaging science subsystem. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Updated maps of Titan, based on the Cassini imaging science subsystem. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

The few impact craters discovered on Titan’s surface include a 440 km (270 mi) wide two-ring impact basin named Menrva, which is identifiable from its bright-dark concentric pattern. A smaller, 60 km (37 mi) wide, flat-floored crater named Sinlap and a 30 km (19 mi) crater with a central peak and dark floor named Ksa have also been observed.

Radar and orbital imaging has also revealed a number of “crateriforms” on the surface, circular features that may be impact related. These include a 90 km (56 mi) wide ring of bright, rough material known as Guabonito, which is thought to be an impact crater filled in by dark, windblown sediment. Several other similar features have been observed in the dark Shangri-la and Aaru regions.

The presence of cryovolcanism has also been theorized based on the fact that there is apparently not enough liquid methane on Titan’s surface (see below) to account for the atmospheric methane. However, to date, the only indications of cryovolcanism are particularly bright and dark features on the surface and 200 m (660 ft)  structures resembling lava flows that were spotted in the region called Hotei Arcus.

Titan’s surface is also permeated by streaky features (aka. “sand dunes“), some of which are hundreds of kilometers in length and several meters high. These appear to be caused by powerful, alternating winds that are caused by the interaction of the Sun and Titan’s dense atmosphere. Titan’s surface is also marked by broad regions of bright and dark terrain.

Radar image of rows of dunes on Titan. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Radar image of rows of dunes on Titan. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

These include Xanadu, a large, reflective equatorial area that was first identified by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1994 and later by the Cassini spacecraft. This region (which is about the same size as Australia) is very diverse, being filled with hills, valleys, chasms and crisscrossed in places by dark lineaments – sinuous topographical features resembling ridges or crevices.

These could be an indication of tectonic activity, which would mean that Xanadu is geologically young. Alternatively, the lineaments may be liquid-formed channels, suggesting old terrain that has been cut through by stream systems. There are dark areas of similar size elsewhere on Titan, which have been revealed to be the patches of water ice and organic compounds that darkened due to exposure to UV radiation.

Methane Lakes:

Titan is also home to its famous “hydrocarbon seas”, lakes of liquid methane and other hydrocarbon compounds. Many of these have been spotted near the polar regions, such as Ontario Lacus. This confirmed methane lake near the south pole has a surface area of 15,000 km² (making it 20% smaller than its namesake, Lake Ontario) and a maximum depth of 7 meters (23 feet).

But the largest body of liquid is Kraken Mare, a methane lake near the north pole. With a surface area of about 400,000 km², it is larger than the Caspian Sea and is estimated to be 160 meters deep. Shallow capillary waves (aka. ripple waves) that are 1.5 centimeters high and moving at speeds of 0.7 meters per second have also been detected.

The seas of Titan
Mosaic of images taken in near infrared light showing Titan’s polar seas (left) and a radar image of Kraken Mare (right), both taken by the Cassini spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL

Then there is Ligeia Mare, the second largest known body of liquid on Titan, which is connected to Kraken Mare and also located near the north pole. With a surface area of about 126,000 km² and a shoreline that is over 2000 km (1240 mi) in length, it is larger than Lake Superior. Much like Kraken Mare, it takes its name from Greek mythology; in this case, after one of the sirens.

It was here that NASA first noticed a bright object measuring 260 km² (100 square miles), which they named “Magic Island”. This object was first spotted in July 2013, then disappeared later, only to reappear again (slightly changed) in August 2014 . It is believed to be inked to Titan’s changing seasons, and suggestions as to what it might be range from surface waves and rising bubbles to floating solids suspended beneath the surface.

Although most of the lakes are concentrated near the poles (where low levels of sunlight prevent evaporation), a number of hydrocarbon lakes have also been discovered in the equatorial desert regions. This includes one near the Huygens landing site in the Shangri-la region, which is about half the size of Utah’s Great Salt Lake. Like desert oases on Earth, it is speculated that these equatorial lakes are fed by underground aquifers.

Overall, the Cassini radar observations have shown that lakes cover only a few percent of the surface, making Titan much drier than Earth. However, the probe also provided strong indications that considerable liquid water exists 100 km below the surface. Further analysis of the data suggests that this ocean may be as salty as the Dead Sea.

 During previous flybys, 'Magic Island' was not visible near Ligeia Mare's coastline (left). Then, during Cassini's July 20, 2013, flyby the feature appeared (right) NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell
During previous flybys, ‘Magic Island’ was not visible near Ligeia Mare’s coastline (left). Then, during Cassini’s July 20, 2013, flyby the feature appeared (right). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell

Other studies suggest methane rainfall (see below) on Titan may interact with icy materials underground to produce ethane and propane that may eventually feed into rivers and lakes.


Titan is the only moon in the Solar System with a significant atmosphere, and the only body other than Earth who’s atmosphere is nitrogen-rich. Recent observations have shown that Titan’s atmosphere is denser than Earth’s, with a surface pressure of about 1.469 KPa – 1.45 times that of Earths. It is also about 1.19 times as massive as Earth’s atmosphere overall, or about 7.3 times more massive on a per-surface-area basis.

The atmosphere is made up of opaque haze layers and other sources that block most visible light from the Sun and obscure its surface features (similar to Venus). Titan’s lower gravity also means that its atmosphere is far more extended than Earth’s. In the stratosphere, the atmospheric composition is 98.4% nitrogen with the remaining 1.6% composed mostly of methane (1.4%) and hydrogen (0.1–0.2%).

There are trace amounts of other hydrocarbons, such as ethane, diacetylene, methylacetylene, acetylene and propane; as well as other gases such as cyanoacetylene, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, cyanogen, argon and helium. The hydrocarbons are thought to form in Titan’s upper atmosphere in reactions resulting from the breakup of methane by the Sun’s ultraviolet light, producing a thick orange smog.

Energy from the Sun should have converted all traces of methane in Titan’s atmosphere into more complex hydrocarbons within 50 million years—a short time compared to the age of the Solar System. This suggests that methane must be replenished by a reservoir on or within Titan itself. The ultimate origin of the methane in its atmosphere may be its interior, released via eruptions from cryovolcanoes.

False colour image of Titan's atmosphere. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute/ESA
False color image of Titan’s atmosphere. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute/ESA

Titan’s surface temperature is about 94 K (-179.2 °C), which is due to the fact that Titan receives about 1% as much sunlight as Earth. At this temperature, water ice has an extremely low vapor pressure, so the little water vapor present appears limited to the stratosphere. The moon would be much colder, were it not for the fact that the atmospheric methane creates a greenhouse effect on Titan’s surface.

Conversely, haze in Titan’s atmosphere contributes to an anti-greenhouse effect by reflecting sunlight back into space, cancelling a portion of the greenhouse effect and making its surface significantly colder than its upper atmosphere. In addition, Titan’s atmosphere periodically rains liquid methane and other organic compounds onto its surface.

Based on studies simulating the atmosphere of Titan, NASA scientists have speculated that complex organic molecules could arise on Titan (see below). In addition, propene – aka. propylene, a class of hydrocarbon – has also been detected in Titan’s atmosphere. This is the first time propene has been found on any moon or planet other than Earth, and is thought to be formed from recombined radicals created by the UV photolysis of methane.


Titan is thought to be a prebiotic environment rich in complex organic chemistry with a possible subsurface liquid ocean serving as a biotic environment. Ongoing research of Titan’s atmosphere has led many scientists to theorize that conditions there are similar to what existed on a primordial Earth, with the important exception of a lack of water vapor.

Numerous experiments have shown that an atmosphere similar to that of Titan, with the addition of UV radiation, could give rise to complex molecules and polymer substances like tholins. In addition, independent research conducted by the University of Arizona reported that when energy was applied to a combination of gases like those found in Titan’s atmosphere, many organic compounds were produced. These includes the five nucleotide bases – the building blocks of DNA and RNA – as well as amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein.

Multiple laboratory simulations have been conducted that have led to the suggestion that enough organic material exists on Titan to start a chemical evolution process analogous to what is thought to have started life here on Earth. While this theory assumes the presence of water that would remain in a liquid state for longer periods that have been observed, organic life could theoretically survive in Titan’s hypothetical subsurface ocean.

Much like on Europa and other moons, this life would likely take the form of extremophiles – organisms that thrive in extreme environments. Heat transfer between the interior and upper layers would be critical in sustaining any subsurface oceanic life, most likely through hydrothermal vents located at the ocean-core boundary. That the atmospheric methane and nitrogen might be of biological origin has also been examined.

It has also been suggested that life could exist in Titan’s lakes of liquid methane, just as organisms on Earth live in water. Such organisms would inhale dihydrogen (H²) in place of oxygen gas (O²), metabolize it with acetylene instead of glucose, and then exhale methane instead of carbon dioxide. Although all living things on Earth use liquid water as a solvent, it is speculated that life on Titan could actually live in liquid hydrocarbons.

Several experiments and models have been constructed to test this hypothesis. For instance, atmospheric models have shown that molecular hydrogen is in greater abundance in the upper atmosphere and disappears near the surface – which is consistent with the possibility of methanogenic life-forms. Another study has shown that there are low levels of acetylene on Titan’s surface, which is also in line with the hypothesis of organisms consuming hydrocarbons.

In 2015, a team of chemical engineers at Cornell University went as far as to construct a hypothetical cell membrane that was capable of functioning in liquid methane under conditions similar to that on Titan. Composed of small molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, this cell was said to have the same stability and flexibility as cell membranes on Earth. This hypothetical cell membrane was termed an “azotosome” (a combination of “azote”, French for nitrogen, and “liposome”).

However, NASA has gone on record as stating that these theories remain entirely hypothetical. Furthermore, it has been emphasized that other theories as to why hydrogen and acetylene levels are lower nearer to the surface are more plausible. These include a as-of-yet unidentified physical or chemical processes – such as a surface catalyst accepting hydrocarbons or hydrogen – or the existence of flaws in the current models of material flow.

Also, life on Titan would face tremendous obstacles compared to life on Earth – thus making any analogy to Earth problematic. For one, Titan is too far from the Sun, and its atmosphere lacks carbon monoxide (CO), which results in it not retaining enough heat or energy to trigger biological processes. Also, water only exists on Titan’s surface in solid form.

So while the prebiotic conditions that are associated with organic chemistry exist on Titan, life itself may not. However, the existence of these conditions remains a subject of fascination among scientists. And since its atmosphere is thought to be analogous to Earth’s in the distant past, researching Titan could help advance our understanding of the early history of the terrestrial biosphere.


Titan cannot be spotted without the help of instrumentation, and is often difficult for amateur astronomers because of interference from Saturn’s brilliant globe and ring system. And even after the development of high-powered telescopes, Titan’s dense, hazy, atmosphere made observations of the surface very difficult. Hence, observations of both Titan and its surface features prior to the space age were limited.

The first probe to visit the Saturnian system was Pioneer 11 in 1979, which took images of Titan and Saturn together and revealed that Titan was probably too cold to support life. Titan was examined in 1980 and 1981 by both the Voyager 1 and 2 space probes, respectively. While Voyager 2 managed to take snapshots of Titan on its way to Uranus and Neptune, only Voyager 1 managed to conduct a flyby and take pictures and readings.

This included readings on Titan’s density, composition, and temperature of the atmosphere, and obtain a precise measurement of Titan’s mass. Atmospheric haze prevented direct imaging of the surface; though in 2004, intensive digital processing of images taken through Voyager 1‘s orange filter did reveal hints of the light and dark features now known as Xanadu and Shangri-la.

 Voyager 2 photograph of Titan, taken Aug. 23, 1981 from a range of 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles), shows some detail in the cloud systems on this Saturnian moon. Credit: NASA/JPL
Voyager 2 photograph of Titan, taken on Aug. 23rd, 1981, which shows some detail in the cloud systems on this Saturnian moon. Credit: NASA/JPL

Even so, much of the mystery surrounding Titan would not begin to be dispelled until the Cassini-Huygens mission – a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) named in honor of the astronomers who made the greatest discoveries involving Saturn’s moons. The spacecraft reached Saturn on July 1st, 2004, and began the process of mapping Titan’s surface by radar.

The Cassini probe flew by Titan on October 26th, 2004, and took the highest-resolution images ever of Titan’s surface, discerning patches of light and dark that were otherwise invisible to the human eye. Over the course of many close flybys of Titan, Cassini managed to detect abundant sources of liquid on the surface in the north polar region, in the form of many lakes and seas.

The Huygens probe landed on Titan on January 14th, 2005, making Titan the most distant body from Earth to have a space probe land on its surface. During the course of its investigations, it would discover that many of the surface features appear to have been formed by fluids at some point in the past.

After landing just off the easternmost tip of the bright region now called Adiri, the probe photographed pale hills with dark “rivers” running down to a dark plain. The current theory is that these hills (aka. “highlands”) are composed mainly of water ice, and that dark organic compounds – created in the upper atmosphere – may come down from Titan’s atmosphere with methane rain and become deposited on the plains over time.

Artist depiction of Huygens landing on Titan. Credit: ESA
Artist depiction of Huygens landing on Titan. Credit: ESA

Huygens also obtained photographs of a dark plain covered in small rocks and pebbles (composed of water ice) that showed evidence of erosion and/or fluvial activity. The surface is darker than originally expected, consisting of a mixture of water and hydrocarbon ice. The “soil” visible in the images is interpreted to be precipitation from the hydrocarbon haze above.

Several proposals for returning a robotic space probe to Titan have been made in recent years. These include the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) – a joint NASA/ESA proposal for the exploration of Saturn’s moons – that envisions a hot-air balloon floating in Titan’s atmosphere and conducting research for a period of six months.

In 2009, it was announced that the TSSM lost out to a competing concept known the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) – a joint NASA/ESA mission that will consist of sending two probes to Europa and Ganymede to study their potential habitability.

There was also a proposal known as Titan Mare Explorer (TiME), a concept under consideration by NASA in conjunction with Lockheed Martin. This mission would involve a low-cost lander splashing down in a lake in Titan’s northern hemisphere and floating on the surface of the lake for 3 to 6 months. However, NASA announced in 2012 that it favored the lower-cost InSight Mars lander instead, which is scheduled to be sent to Mars in 2016.

Another mission to Titan was proposed in early 2012 by Jason Barnes, a scientist at the University of Idaho. Known as the Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR), this unmanned plane (or drone) would fly through Titan’s atmosphere and take high-definition images of the surface. NASA did not approve the requested $715 million at the time and the future of the project is uncertain.

Another lake lander project known as the Titan Lake In-situ Sampling Propelled Explorer (TALISE) was proposed in late 2012 by the Spanish-based private engineering firm SENER and the Centro de Astrobiología in Madrid. The major difference between this and the TiME probe is that the TALISE concept includes its own propulsion system, and would therefore not be limited to simply drifting on the lake when it splashes down.

In response to NASA’s 2010 Discovery Announcement, the concept known as Journey to Enceladus and Titan (JET) was proposed. Developed by Caltech and JPL, this mission would consist of a low-cost astrobiology orbiter that would be sent to the Saturnian system to asses the habitability potential of Enceladus and Titan.

In 2015, NASA’s Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) awarded a Phase II grant to a proposed robotic submarine in order to further investigate and develop the concept. This submarine explorer, should it be deployed to Titan, will explore the depths of Kraken Mare to investigate its makeup and potential for supporting life.


The colonization of the Saturn system presents numerous advantages compared to other gas giants in the Solar System. According to Dr. Robert Zubrin – an American aerospace engineer, author, and an advocate for the exploration Mars – these include its relative proximity to Earth, its low radiation, and its excellent system of moons. Zubrin has also stated that Titan is the most important of these moons when it comes to building a base to develop the system’s resources.

On the left is TALISE (Titan Lake In-situ Sampling Propelled Explorer), the ESA proposal. This would have it's own propulsion, in the form of paddlewheels. Credit: bisbos.com
Artist’s conception of possible Titan “floater” designed by NASA and the ESA. Credit: bisbos.com

For starters, Titan possess an abundance of all the elements necessary to support life, such as atmospheric nitrogen and methane, liquid methane, and liquid water and ammonia. Water could easily be used to generate breathable oxygen, and nitrogen is ideal as a buffer gas to create a pressurized, breathable atmosphere. In addition, nitrogen, methane and ammonia could all be used to produce fertilizer for growing food.

Additionally, Titan has an atmospheric pressure one and a half times that of Earth, which means that the interior air pressure of landing craft and habitats could be set equal or close to the exterior pressure. This would significantly reduce the difficulty and complexity of structural engineering for landing craft and habitats compared with low or zero pressure environments such as on the Moon, Mars, or the Asteroid Belt.

The thick atmosphere also makes radiation a non-issue, unlike with other planets or Jupiter’s moons. And while Titan’s atmosphere does contain flammable compounds, these only present a danger if they are mixed with sufficient enough oxygen – otherwise, combustion cannot be achieved or sustained. Finally, the very high ratio of atmospheric density to surface gravity also greatly reduces the wingspan needed for aircraft to maintain lift.

Beyond this, Titan presents many challenges for human colonization. For starters, the moon has a surface gravity of 0.138 g, which is slightly less than that of the Moon. Managing the long-term effects of this presents a challenge, and what those effects would be (especially for children born on Titan) are not currently known. However, they would likely include loss of bone density, muscle deterioration, and a weakened immune system.

Artist's impression of future colonists flying over Ligeia Mare on Titan. Credit: Erik Wernquist/erikwernquist.com
Artist’s impression of future colonists flying over Ligeia Mare on Titan. Credit: Erik Wernquist/erikwernquist.com

The temperature on Titan is also considerably lower than on Earth, with an average temperature of 94 K (-179 °C, or -290.2 °F). Combined with the increased atmospheric pressure, temperatures vary very little over time and from one local to the next. Unlike in a vacuum, the high atmospheric density makes thermoinsulation a significant engineering problem. Nevetherless, compared to other cases for colonization, the problems associated with creating a human presence on Titan are relatively surmountable.

Titan is a moon that is shrouded in mystery, both literally and metaphorically. Until very recently, we were unable to discern what secrets it held because its atmosphere was simply too thick to see beneath. However, in recent years, we have managed to pull back that shroud and get a better look at the moon’s surface. But in many ways, doing this has only confounded the sense of mystery surrounding this world.

Perhaps someday we will send astronauts to Titan and find life forms there that completely alter our conception of what life is and where it can thrive. Perhaps we will find only extremophiles, life forms that live in the deepest parts of its interior ocean huddled around hydorthermal vents, since these spots are the only place on Titan where lifeforms can exist.

Perhaps we will even colonize Titan someday, and use it as a base for further exploration of the Solar System and resource extraction. Then, we may come to know the pleasures of looking up at a ringed planet in the sky while sailing on a methane lake, the hazy light of the Sun trickling down onto the cold, hydrocarbon seas. One can only hope… and dream!

We have many interesting articles about Titan here at Universe Today. Here are some on Titan’s atmosphere, it’s mysterious sand dunes, and how we might explore it with a robotic sailboat.

For more information on Titan’s methane lakes, check out this article on Titan’s north pole, and this one about Kraken Mare.

Here’s NASA’s Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan, and here’s the ESA’s version.

We have recorded two episodes of Astronomy Cast just about Saturn. The first is Episode 59: Saturn, and the second is Episode 61: Saturn’s Moons.

Titanic Liquid: Blinding ‘Sunglint’ Shines On Saturn’s Swampy Moon

See that yellow smudge in the image above? That’s what the Sun looks like reflecting off the seas of Titan, that moon of Saturn that excites astrobiologists because its chemistry resembles what early Earth could have looked like. This image represents the first time this “sunglint” and Titan’s northern polar seas have been captured in one mosaic, NASA said.

What’s more, if you look closely at the sea surrounding the sunlight, you can see what scientists dub a “bathtub ring.” Besides looking pretty, this image from the Cassini spacecraft shows the huge sea (called Kraken Mare) was actually larger at some point in Titan’s past.

“The southern portion of Kraken Mare … displays a ‘bathtub ring’ — a bright margin of evaporate deposits — which indicates that the sea was larger at some point in the past and has become smaller due to evaporation,” NASA stated. “The deposits are material left behind after the methane and ethane liquid evaporates, somewhat akin to the saline crust on a salt flat.”

In this near-infrared global mosaic of Titan, sunglint and the moon's polar seas are visible above the shadow. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University of Idaho
In this near-infrared global mosaic of Titan, sunglint and the moon’s polar seas are visible above the shadow. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University of Idaho

The sunlight was so bright that it saturated the detector on Cassini that viewed it, called the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument. The sun was about 40 degrees above the horizon of Kraken Mare then, which is the highest ever observed on Titan.

The T-106 flyby Oct. 23 was the second-to-last closeup view Cassini will have of Titan this year. The spacecraft has been circling Saturn’s system for more than 10 years, and is now watching Titan (and Saturn’s) northern hemisphere enter summer.

Titan is covered in a thick, orangey atmosphere that hid its surface from scientists the first time a spacecraft zoomed by it in the 1980s. Subsequent exploration (most especially by Cassini and a short-lived lander called Huygens) have revealed dunes on and near the equator and at higher altitudes, lakes of methane and ethane.

Source: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Saturn-Circling Cassini Spacecraft Plumbs Titan’s Seas Next Week

Is the surf up yet on Titan? As the moon of Saturn moves towards northern summer, scientists are trying to spot signs of the winds picking up. This weekend, the Cassini spacecraft plans a look at the the largest body of liquid on Titan, Kraken Mare, to see if there are any waves on this huge hydrocarbon sea.

Cassini will make the 105th flyby of Titan on Monday (Sept. 22) to probe the moon’s atmosphere, seas and even a crater. The spacecraft will examine “the seas and lakes of the northern polar area, including Kraken and Ligeia at resolution better than 3 miles (5 kilometers) per pixel,” the Cassini website stated.

Besides wet areas of Titan, Cassini will also look at dunes and the relatively fresh-looking Sinlap crater, where scientists hope to get a high-resolution image. Managers also plan a mosaic of Tsegihi — a bright zone south of the equator — and the darker dune-filled area of Fensal. The spacecraft additionally will examine aerosols and the transparency of hazes in Titan’s atmosphere.

Titan is of interest to scientists in part because its chemistry is a possible precursor to what made life possible. Earlier this week, Cassini transmitted several raw images of its view of Titan and Saturn right now — some of the latest pictures are below.

A raw image of Saturn's moon Titan taken by the Cassini spacecraft Sept. 14, 2014. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
A raw image of Saturn’s moon Titan taken by the Cassini spacecraft Sept. 14, 2014. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Atmospheric features on Saturn's moon Titan appear to be faintly visible in this raw image taken by the Cassini spacecraft Sept. 10, 2014. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Atmospheric features on Saturn’s moon Titan appear to be faintly visible in this raw image taken by the Cassini spacecraft Sept. 10, 2014. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
A crescent Titan beckons the Cassini spacecraft (in Saturn's system) in this image taken Aug. 24, 2014. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
A crescent Titan beckons the Cassini spacecraft (in Saturn’s system) in this image taken Aug. 24, 2014. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
A raw image of Saturn taken by the Cassini spacecraft Sept. 15, 2014. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
A raw image of Saturn taken by the Cassini spacecraft Sept. 15, 2014. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

Titan’s North Pole is Loaded With Lakes

A combination of exceptionally clear weather, the steady approach of northern summer, and a poleward orbital path has given Cassini — and Cassini scientists — unprecedented views of countless lakes scattered across Titan’s north polar region. In the near-infrared mosaic above they can be seen as dark splotches and speckles scattered around the moon’s north pole. Previously observed mainly via radar, these are the best visual and infrared wavelength images ever obtained of Titan’s northern “land o’ lakes!”


Titan is currently the only other world besides Earth known to have stable bodies of liquid on its surface, but unlike Earth, Titan’s lakes aren’t filled with water — instead they’re full of liquid methane and ethane, organic compounds which are gases on Earth but liquids in Titan’s incredibly chilly -290º F (-180º C) environment.

While one large lake and a few smaller ones have been previously identified at Titan’s south pole, curiously almost all of Titan’s lakes appear near the moon’s north pole.

Infrared observations of Titan's northern lakes (NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI)
Infrared observations of Titan’s northern lakes. The cross marks Titan’s geographic north pole. (NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI)

For an idea of scale, the large lake at the upper right above (and the largest lake on Titan) Kraken Mare is comparative in size to the Caspian Sea and Lake Superior combined. Kraken Mare is so large that sunlight was seen reflecting off its surface in 2009. Punga Mare, nearest Titan’s pole, is 240 miles (386 km) across.

Besides revealing the (uncannily) smooth surfaces of lakes — which appear dark in near-infrared wavelengths but would also be darker than the surrounding landscape in visible light —  these Cassini images also show an unusually bright terrain surrounding them. Since the majority of Titan’s lakes are found within this bright region it’s thought that there could be a geologic correlation; is this Titan’s version of karst terrain, like what’s found in the southeastern U.S. and New Mexico? Could these lakes be merely the visible surfaces of a vast underground hydrocarbon aquifer? Or are they shallow pools filling depressions in an ancient lava flow?

Annotated infrared mosaic of Titan's north pole (NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI)
Annotated infrared mosaic of Titan’s north pole (NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI)

Or, are they the remains of once-larger lakes and seas which have since evaporated? The orange-hued regions in the false-color mosaic may be evaporite — the Titan equivalent of salt flats on Earth. The evaporated material is thought to be organic chemicals originally from Titan’s haze particles that were once dissolved in liquid methane.

“Is this an indication that with increased warmth, the seas and lakes are starting to evaporate, leaving behind a deposit of organic material,” wrote Carolyn Porco, Cassini Imaging Team Leader, in an email earlier today. “…in other words, the Titan equivalent of a salt-flat?”

The largest lake at Titan’s south pole, Ontario Lacus, has been previously compared to such an ephemeral lake in Namibia called the Etosha Pan. (Read more here.)

These observations are only possible because of the extended and long-term study of Saturn and its family of moons by the Cassini spacecraft, which began with its establishing orbit in 2004 and has since continued across multiple seasons over a third of the ringed planet’s year. The existence of methane lakes on Titan is undoubtedly fascinating, but how deep the lakes are, where they came from and how they behave in Titan’s environment have yet to be discovered. Luckily, the changing season is on our side.

“Titan’s northern lakes region is one of the most Earth-like and intriguing in the solar system,” said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist, based at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. “We know lakes here change with the seasons, and Cassini’s long mission at Saturn gives us the opportunity to watch the seasons change at Titan, too. Now that the sun is shining in the north and we have these wonderful views, we can begin to compare the different data sets and tease out what Titan’s lakes are doing near the north pole.”

The images shown above were obtained by Cassini’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) during a close flyby of Titan on Sept. 12, 2013.

Read more on the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) site here and on the NASA site here.

“But how thrilling it is to still be uncovering new territory on this fascinating moon… a place that, until Cassini’s arrival at Saturn nearly 10 years ago, was the largest single expanse of unseen terrain we had remaining in our solar system. Our adventures here have been the very essence of exploration. And it’s not over yet!”

– Carolyn Porco on Facebook

An illustration of a Titanic lake by Ron Miller. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
An illustration of a Titanic lake © Ron Miller. All rights reserved.

Also, check out a corresponding article and intriguing illustration of robotic Titan exploration by space artist extraordinaire Ron Miller on io9.com.