Astronomers collect the stars in the Universe into a classification system that organized them by color and spectral signature (the presence of various metals in the star’s outer atmosphere). Here are the classifications: O, B, A, F, G, K, M (if you need to remember then, just keep this in mind: “Oh be a fine girl, kiss me”.) G stars are perhaps the best known stars out there. That’s because our own Sun is a G star.
G stars range in temperature from 5,000 Kelvin to 6,000 Kelvin, and they appear white or yellow-white to our eyes. You can also recognize a G star by the presence of Calcium in their spectral signature, but with weaker hydrogen lines than F type stars. G stars represent 7.7% of all the stars in our stellar neighbourhood.
Some familiar G stars include The Sun, Alpha Centauri A, Capella, Tau Ceti
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We have written many articles about stars here on Universe Today. Here’s an article about the search for planets around Alpha Centauri.