Astronomers collect the stars in the Universe into a classification system that organized them by color and spectral signature (the presence of various metals in the star’s outer atmosphere). Here are the classifications: O, B, A, F, G, K, M (if you need to remember then, just keep this in mind: “Oh be a fine girl, kiss me”.) G stars are perhaps the best known stars out there. That’s because our own Sun is a G star.
G stars range in temperature from 5,000 Kelvin to 6,000 Kelvin, and they appear white or yellow-white to our eyes. You can also recognize a G star by the presence of Calcium in their spectral signature, but with weaker hydrogen lines than F type stars. G stars represent 7.7% of all the stars in our stellar neighbourhood.
Some familiar G stars include The Sun, Alpha Centauri A, Capella, Tau Ceti
We have written many articles about stars here on Universe Today. Here’s an article about the search for planets around Alpha Centauri.