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Hartley 2 Spawns Meteor Shower

Article written: 3 Nov , 2010
Updated: 24 Dec , 2015
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The comet of the year for 2010 seems to be Hartley 2. Although this comet is receding from Earth now (its closest approach was in the latter half of October) and growing fainter, it seems to have left us with one last hurrah: The spawning a brief meteor shower.


Although other comets, such as 2009 R1 (McNaught) and 2P/Encke have passed earlier this year, none has presented an especially tempting target for amateur astronomers (both McNaught and Encke were too close to the Sun during perihelion to be easily observed). Additionally, Hartley is the target of a flyby of the Deep Impact probe bringing it further attention.

Meanwhile, observationally, the comet has been somewhat difficult to observe. I went out on October 17th to hunt for it with a 4″ telescope, but despite my best efforts, couldn’t find it. Although the comet was predicted to reach 5th magnitude, the growing nucleus has apparently become so diffuse, reaching over 1° in the sky, that it’s hard to spot. Undeterred, I attempted again this past weekend with my 8″ SCT. Again, my attempts were frustrated. Even a 15 second exposure with my camera barely brought out more than a smudge.

Yet that night we observed several bright meteors radiating from near Cassiopeia which is where Hartley had been a few weeks prior. We checked to ensure there weren’t any other annual meteor showers from that region. Sure enough, there weren’t, and we wondered if there might be a connection between Hartley’s passing and the meteors we witnessed.

Sure enough, just such a shower was a predicted possibility. Whether or not the shower would occur would depend on just how much dust Hartley had given off in the past and how diffuse the cloud had grown (on this pass and others) since its closest approach to Earth was still 12 million km. Although the meteors my friends and I witnessed were notable (around 2nd to 3rd magnitude) they came from the wrong direction. Meteors spawning from Hartley should have a radiant in Cygnus, the swan. But while ours may not have caught these “Hartley-ids”, others have been witnessing a far grander show in the past few nights that seem to come from the right direction.

In Seascape California, Helga Cabral caught a bright fireball. “I saw a bright white ball and tail, arcing towards the ocean. It was quite beautiful and it looked like it was headed out to sea and so picture perfect it could have been a movie!” A similar fireball was reported the same night near Boston, Massachusetts by Teresa Witham. The predicted peak of this shower occurs tonight so if you have a chance and clear skies, go out and look. As with most showers, there may be some stragglers just before and after so you may be able to catch some for the next few nights if conditions tonight aren’t favorable.

Meteors from Hartley 2 will have a relatively low velocity upon entering our atmosphere since the comet is traveling roughly in the same direction. As such, the expected velocity as it hits our planet is a mere 7 miles a second. The result of this is that they will likely travel slowly across the sky, taking perhaps as much as a few seconds. In contrast, the Leonid showers coming later this month have a relative velocity of 45 miles per second, which causes the meteors to streak across the entire sky in less than a second. The lower velocity for the Hartley-ids will also mean they won’t undergo as much frictional heating and will likely glow fainter shades of reds and yellows.

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6 Responses

  1. Member
    Aqua says

    I saw Comet Hartley 2 in a 4 1/2″ reflector the same night the image above was taken… couldn’t NOT find it that night!

  2. Geology says

    Finding Hartley 2 on the weekend of Oct. 8, 9 was near torture with an 8″ SCT. I imaged it that weekend so I know it was there, but I never got a good eyeball view of it that I felt comfortable confirming it was in fact the comet. Even with a 55mm TeleVue eyepiece, thinking the wide FOV would help pin it down, I couldn’t claim visual observation. Absolutely frustrating knowing I can observe 12th mag. Galaxies but not a 6th mag. comet!!!

    I would love to spot a few of the meteors. Can someone do something about the cloudy weather?

  3. Member
    Jon Voisey says

    @Aqua: I’ve had similar difficulties in the past with comets in which I’ve been unable to find them when they’re supposedly at their peak brightness but extremely diffuse yet had no problem when they’re faint but still compact. But never have I had such difficulty as this little guy.

  4. Nyx says

    I was able to see the comet on October 20th (early morning) with a 3.5″ (90 mm) telescope, when the Moon was under the horizon. It was very hard, though. And I used filters and a long focal ocular. With my eyes adapted to the darkness and with “peripheral vision”, the comet was near the limit of my perception.

  5. gvarros says

    A Leonid meteor can’t possibly traverse the ‘entire sky’ in “less than a second”. No math required as the error is glaring; here’s the statement:

    “In contrast, the Leonid showers coming later this month have a relative velocity of 45 miles per second, which causes the meteors to streak across the entire sky in less than a second. ”

    So, our sky, horizon to opposite horizon is LESS THAN 45 miles?

  6. Member
    Aqua says

    Yeah… about 20% of the comets I’ve observed were seen with averted vision under excellent seeing conditions and even then were just barely visible. But I’m one of those astronomers who goes ‘out of the way’ to find good seeing. I typically drive up to my 1,500 foot elevation coastal mountain perch which is 2 ridges in from the sea. Laminar flow sometimes co-operates and WOW! DARK SKIES make all the difference with comets! My Meade SC is fork mounted which I find easy to use with star maps. My 4 1/2″ reflector is a German Equatorial mount in which I find the whole different set of procedures rather time consuming and myself much more reliant on the finder scope.

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