Astronomers classify stars into groups according to their color and the presence of elements in the stars’ spectral signatures. This star classification system goes like this: O, B, A, F, G, K, M (here’s a way to remember them: “Oh be a fine girl, kiss me”.) M stars are coolest and most common stars in the Universe.
M stars range in temperature from 2,500 Kelvin and go all the way up to 3,500 Kelvin. They look red to our eyes. M stars account for 75% of the stars in our stellar neighborhood, so they’re the most common by far! Most M stars are tiny red dwarfs, with less than 50% of the mass of the Sun, but some are actually giants and supergiants, like the red giant Betelgeuse.
Some familiar M stars include Betalgeuse (red giant), and the red dwarfs Proxima Centauri, Barnard’s star, and Gliese 581
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We have written many articles about stars here on Universe Today. Here’s an article about how red dwarf stars have small habitable zones.