Spitzer Captures Ancient Fireworks of First Objects in the Universe

by Nancy Atkinson on June 7, 2012

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These two panels show the same slice of sky in the constellation Boötes, dubbed the "Extended Groth Strip." The area covered is about 1 by 0.12 degrees. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSFC

The Spitzer Space Telescope has looked back in time to see what scientists called the “faint, lumpy glow” given off by the very first objects in the Universe, and these ancient objects obviously provided some early cosmic fireworks. While they are too faint and distant to figure out what the individual objects are – they may be massive stars or voracious black holes – Spitzer has captured what appears to be the collective pattern of their infrared light, revealing these first objects were numerous and furiously burned cosmic fuel.

“These objects would have been tremendously bright,” said Alexander “Sasha” Kashlinsky from the Goddard Space Flight Center, lead author of a new paper appearing in The Astrophysical Journal. “We can’t yet directly rule out mysterious sources for this light that could be coming from our nearby universe, but it is now becoming increasingly likely that we are catching a glimpse of an ancient epoch. Spitzer is laying down a roadmap for NASA’s upcoming James Webb Telescope, which will tell us exactly what and where these first objects were.”

This isn’t the first time astronomers have used Spitzer to search for the very first stars and black holes, and back in 2005 they saw hints of this remote pattern of light, known as the cosmic infrared background, and again with more precision in 2007. Now, Spitzer is in the extended phase of its mission, during which it performs more in-depth studies on specific patches of the sky. Kashlinsky and his colleagues used Spitzer to look at two patches of sky for more than 400 hours each.

The team then carefully subtracted all the known stars and galaxies in the images. Rather than being left with a black, empty patch of sky, they found faint patterns of light with several telltale characteristics of the cosmic infrared background. The lumps in the pattern observed are consistent with the way the very distant objects are thought to be clustered together.

Kashlinsky likens the observations to looking for Fourth of July fireworks in New York City from Los Angeles. First, you would have to remove all the foreground lights between the two cities, as well as the blazing lights of New York City itself. You ultimately would be left with a fuzzy map of how the fireworks are distributed, but they would still be too distant to make out individually.

“We can gather clues from the light of the Universe’s first fireworks,” said Kashlinsky. “This is teaching us that the sources, or the “sparks,” are intensely burning their nuclear fuel.”

The Universe formed roughly 13.7 billion years ago in a fiery, explosive Big Bang. With time, it cooled and, by around 500 million years later, the first stars, galaxies and black holes began to take shape. Astronomers say some of that “first light” might have traveled billions of years to reach the Spitzer Space Telescope. The light would have originated at visible or even ultraviolet wavelengths and then, because of the expansion of the universe, stretched out to the longer, infrared wavelengths observed by Spitzer.

The new study improves on previous observations by measuring this cosmic infrared background out to scales equivalent to two full moons — significantly larger than what was detected before. Imagine trying to find a pattern in the noise in an old-fashioned television set by looking at just a small piece of the screen. It would be hard to know for certain if a suspected pattern was real. By observing a larger section of the screen, you would be able to resolve both small- and large-scale patterns, further confirming your initial suspicion.

Likewise, astronomers using Spitzer have increased the amount of sky examined to obtain more definitive evidence of the cosmic infrared background. The researchers plan to explore more patches of sky in the future to gather more clues hidden in the light of this ancient era.

“This is one of the reasons we are building the James Webb Space Telescope,” said Glenn Wahlgren, Spitzer program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Spitzer is giving us tantalizing clues, but James Webb will tell us what really lies at the era where stars first ignited.”

Read the team’s paper.
Source: NASA

About 

Nancy Atkinson is Universe Today's Senior Editor. She also is the host of the NASA Lunar Science Institute podcast and works with Astronomy Cast. Nancy is also a NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassador.

Sid Plait June 7, 2012 at 11:30 PM

I thought we knew the universe was approximately 14.3 billion years old. Do astronomers now think 13.7 is the better number? Actually, now that I think about it, 13.7 billion is how far back in time we can see. What are the right numbers?

IVAN3MAN_AT_LARGE June 8, 2012 at 3:47 AM
Sid Plait June 8, 2012 at 10:38 AM

Thanks, Ivan! Did it change recently? I know it was sometime after 2001, but I wonder how long it took to revise the estimates.

IVAN3MAN_AT_LARGE June 8, 2012 at 3:02 PM

The first revision for the age of the Universe came in 2003, based upon one year’s worth of WMAP data; subsequent revisions followed in 2006, 2008, and finally in 2010 – with the release of this (PDF) paper.

Torbjörn Larsson June 9, 2012 at 12:40 AM

Note that the new age estimate is consistent with the standard cosmology WMAP gave us. In fact I believe the standard cosmology is even self-consistent on the modeling of age (with or without forcing such consistency).

So it is all good now, no more large changes expected.

Sid Plait June 7, 2012 at 11:33 PM

I was so caught up in the numbers I forgot to comment on the information! We are making great strides in our knowledge of the universe – how it started, what it’s made up of, and how we got here. This is an exciting scientific time to be alive! Thank you, Nancy, for your report!

lcrowell June 8, 2012 at 2:41 AM

This is probably near the z = 10 redshifting factor. So visible blue light at .3 microns would appear as IR at 3 microns. It will be interesting when JWST is up and the details of this might be imaged.

LC

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DarkGnat June 11, 2012 at 12:53 PM

I wonder if these were the dark matter stars that have been hypothesized.

Oded Spitzer June 12, 2012 at 11:24 AM

Phonetically, is it “Spitzer” or “Shpitzer”? please do not answer unless you know for sure.

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