Lava fountain in Hawaii.

What is the Difference Between Lava and Magma?

Article Updated: 21 May , 2016

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Few forces in nature are are impressive or frightening as a volcanic eruption. In an instant, from within the rumbling depths of the Earth, hot lava, steam, and even chunks of hot rock are spewed into the air, covering vast distances with fire and ash. And thanks to the efforts of geologists and Earth scientists over the course of many centuries, we have to come to understand a great deal about them.

However, when it comes to the nomenclature of volcanoes, a point of confusion often arises. Again and again, one of the most common questions about volcanoes is, what is the difference between lava and magma? They are both molten rock, and are both associated with volcanism. So why the separate names? As it turns out, it all comes down to location.

Earth’s Composition:

As anyone with a basic knowledge of geology will tell you, the insides of the Earth are very hot. As a terrestrial planet, its interior is differentiated between a molten, metal core, and a mantle and crust composed primarily of silicate rock. Life as we know it, consisting of all vegetation and land animals, live on the cool crust, whereas sea life inhabits the oceans that cover a large extent of this same crust.

The Earth's layers, showing the Inner and Outer Core, the Mantle, and Crust. Credit: discovermagazine.com

The Earth’s layers, showing the Inner and Outer Core, the Mantle, and Crust. Credit: discovermagazine.com

However, the deeper one goes into the planet, both pressures and temperatures increase considerably. All told, Earth’s mantle extends to a depth of about 2,890 km, and is composed of silicate rocks that are rich in iron and magnesium relative to the overlying crust. Although solid, the high temperatures within the mantle cause pockets of molten rock to form.

This silicate material is less dense than the surrounding rock, and is therefore sufficiently ductile that it can flow on very long timescales. Over time, it will also reach the surface as geological forces push it upwards. This happens as a result of tectonic activity.

Basically, the cool, rigid crust is broken into pieces called tectonic plates. These plates are rigid segments that move in relation to one another at one of three types of plate boundaries. These are known as convergent boundaries, at which two plates come together; divergent boundaries, at which two plates are pulled apart; and transform boundaries, in which two plates slide past one another laterally.

Interactions between these plates are what is what is volcanic activity (best exemplified by the “Pacific Ring of Fire“) as well as mountain-building. As the tectonic plates migrate across the planet, the ocean floor is subducted – the leading edge of one plate pushing under another. At the same time, mantle material will push up at divergent boundaries, forcing molten rock to the surface.

The Earth's Tectonic Plates. Credit: msnucleus.org

The Earth’s Tectonic Plates. Credit: msnucleus.org

Magma:

As already noted, both lava and magma are what results from rock superheated to the point where it becomes viscous and molten. But again, the location is the key. When this molten rock is still located within the Earth, it is known as magma. The name is derived from Greek, which translate to “thick unguent” (a word used to describe a viscous substance used for ointments or lubrication).

It is composed of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles, solids (and sometimes crystals) that are found beneath the surface of the Earth. This vicious rock usually collects in a magma chamber beneath a volcano, or solidify underground to form an intrusion. Where it forms beneath a volcano, it can then be injected into cracks in rocks or issue out of volcanoes in eruptions. The temperature of magma ranges between 600 °C and 1600 °C.

Magma is also known to exist on other terrestrial planets in the Solar System (i.e. Mercury, Venus and Mars) as well as certain moons (Earth’s Moon and Jupiter’s moon Io). In addition to stable lava tubes being observed on Mercury, the Moon and Mars, powerful volcanoes have been observed on Io that are capable of sending lava jets 500 km (300 miles) into space.

Igneous rock (aka. "fire rock") is formed from cooled and solidified magma. Credit: geologyclass.org

Igneous rock (aka. “fire rock”) is formed from cooled and solidified lava. Credit: geologyclass.org

Lava:

When magma reaches the surface and erupts from a volcano, it officially becomes lava. There are actually different kinds of lava depending on its thickness or viscosity. Whereas the thinnest lava can flow downhill for many kilometers (thus creating a gentle slope), thicker lavas will pile up around a  volcanic vent and hardly flow at all. The thickest lava doesn’t even flow, and just plugs up the throat of a volcano, which in some cases cause violent explosions.

The term lava is usually used instead of lava flow. This describes a moving outpouring of lava, which occurs when a non-explosive effusive eruption takes place. Once a flow has stopped moving, the lava solidifies to form igneous rock. Although lava can be up to 100,000 times more viscous than water, lava can flow over great distances before cooling and solidifying.

The word “lava” comes from Italian, and is probably derived from the Latin word labes which means “a fall” or “slide”. The first use in connection with a volcanic event was apparently in a short written account by Franscesco Serao, who observed the eruption of Mount Vesuvius between May 14th and June 4th, 1737. Serao described “a flow of fiery lava” as an analogy to the flow of water and mud down the flanks of the volcano following heavy rain.

Such is the difference between magma and lava. It seems that in geology, as in real estate, its all about location!

We have written many articles about volcanoes here at Universe Today. Here’s What is Lava?, What is the Temperature of Lava?, Igneous Rocks: How Are They Formed?, What Are The Different Parts Of A Volcano? and Planet Earth.

Want more resources on the Earth? Here’s a link to NASA’s Human Spaceflight page, and here’s NASA’s Visible Earth.

We have also recorded an episode of Astronomy Cast about Earth, as part of our tour through the Solar System – Episode 51: Earth.

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9 Responses

  1. sanjeev kumar says:

    I think if there is inside the earth a lot of temperature,, , there must be have vapour, at a certain place it should change in the water layer, so there is inside the earth at a certain distance , there shold be more layer of water, where there is mgma , or lava inside the earh, , I think the earthquick happen because of , than this lava or magma has a lot of temperature, and its upper side there is becomes a water layer, that help to magma cool down, , this all happens in a very wide and deep area, than there should be a very deep empaty space between the frozzen magma or lava, and its upper layer of hard and soft mud with water, and than its happen again up on thethe this hard and soft mud, than this soft mud slip down in the empty space , its create a earth quick, I think ,the movement and quantity of this soft mud with water,to downward, so the earth quick big or small, and I think near this or up on soft mud area , remains, electro magnatic wave, which moves upward, that highly powerful electromagnetic waves creat sunami, big swell, in the sea, theese waves make the volcano, and can do planty things , I can explain bettr in hindi language, with example , and planty more thing if some body give me opportunity, , tell me am right or wrong ideas, before but am sure if there is some device to measure electromagnetic waves, which comes before earthquick with a minor smell, we can know more about earth quick, its my imagens , let me know some body, can it happen

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    • Jeffrey Boerst says:

  2. altizar says:

    :WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LAVA AND MAGMA?” 3 letters

  3. Michael says:

    Pretty long-winded explanation, if you ask me. What happened to the KISS principle (Keep It Simple, Stupid)? Just like a ‘Meteor’ falling to earth becomes a ‘Meteorite’ once it hits the earth, Magma becomes Lava when it leaves the volcano. Simple.

    • Jeffrey Boerst says:

      It’s called an, “Article”. It’s one of many different forms of written communication, as what you describe is called a, “Synopsis”. What the hell kind of blog would be composed of three to four sentence summations of ideas?

  4. Found One says:

    What is the difference between vicious and viscous?

  5. MNM says:

    While I already knew the answer, volcanology is one of my favorite subjects; I found the additional information very informative. Thank you for taking the time to write a very educational article.

Comments are closed.