An Earth-size Diamond in the Sky: The Coolest Known White Dwarf Detected

by Shannon Hall on June 23, 2014

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Artist impression of a white dwarf star in orbit with pulsar PSR J2222-0137. It may be the coolest and dimmest white dwarf ever identified. Credit: B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

An artist’s conception of a white dwarf star in orbit with pulsar PSR J2222-0137. Image Credit: B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

We live in a vast, dark Universe, which makes the smallest and coolest objects extremely difficult to detect, save for a stroke of luck. Often times this luck comes in the form of a companion. Take, for example, the first exoplanet detected due to its orbit around a pulsar — a rapidly spinning neutron star.

A team of researchers using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Green Bank Telescope and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), as well as other observatories have repeated the story, detecting an object in orbit around a distant pulsar. Except this time it’s the coldest, faintest white dwarf ever detected. So cool, in fact, its carbon has crystallized.

The punch line is this: with the help of a pulsar, astronomers have detected an Earth-size diamond in the sky.

“It’s a really remarkable object,” said lead author David Kaplan from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in a press release. “These things should be out there, but because they are so dim they are very hard to find.”

The story begins when Dr. Jason Boyles, then a graduate student at West Virginia University, identified a pulsar, dubbed PSR J2222-0127, 900 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius.

When the core of a massive star runs out of energy, it collapses to form an incredibly dense neutron star or black hole. Bring a teaspoon of neutron star to Earth and it would outweigh Mount Everest at about a billion tons. A pulsar is simply a spinning neutron star.

But as a pulsar spins, lighthouse-like beams of radio waves stream from the poles of its powerful magnetic field. If they sweep past the Earth, they’ll give rise to blips of radio waves, so regular that you could set your watch by them. But if the pulsar carries a companion in tow, the tiny gravitational tugs can offset that timing slightly.

The first observations of PSR J2222-0137 identified that it was spinning more than 30 times each second. It was then observed over a two-year period with the VLBA. By applying Einstein’s theory of relativity — which predicts that light slows in the presence of a gravitational field — the researchers studied how the gravity of the companion warped space, causing delays in the radio signal as the pulsar passed behind it.

The delayed travel times helped the researchers determine the individual masses of the two stars. The pulsar has a mass of 1.2 times that of the Sun and the companion a mass 1.05 times that of the Sun. Previously, researchers had thought the companion was likely another neutron star, or a white dwarf, the remnant of a Sun-like star.

But the timing variations made the neutron star scenario unlikely. The orbits were too orderly for a second supernova to have taken place. So knowing the typical brightness of a white dwarf and its distance, astronomers initially thought they would be able to detect the elusive companion in optical and infrared light.

An image taken in visible light at the SOAR telescope of the field of the pulsar/white dwarf pair. There is no evidence for the white dwarf at the position of the pulsar in this deep image, indicating that the white dwarf is much fainter, and therefore cooler, than any such known object. (The two large white circles mask bright, overexposed stars.)

An image taken in visible light at the SOAR telescope of the field of the pulsar/white dwarf pair. The exact location of the white dwarf is known to a pixel. But it’s not there. Image Credit: NOAO

However, neither the Southern Astrophysical Research telescope in Chile nor the 10-meter Keck telescope in Hawaii was able to detect it.

“Our final image should show us a companion 100 times fainter than any other white dwarf orbiting a neutron star and about 10 times fainter than any known white dwarf, but we don’t see a thing,” said coauthor Bart Dunlap, a graduate student at the University of North Carolina. “If there’s a white dwarf there, and there almost certainly is, it must be extremely cold.”

The research team calculated that the white dwarf would be no more than 3,000 degrees Kelvin. At such a low temperature, the collapsed star would be largely crystallized carbon, similar to diamond.

The paper has been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal and may be viewed here.

About 

Shannon Hall is a freelance science journalist. She holds two B.A.'s from Whitman College in physics-astronomy and philosophy, and an M.S. in astronomy from the University of Wyoming. Currently, she is working toward a second M.S. from NYU's Science, Health and Environmental Reporting program.

jearley June 23, 2014 at 4:39 PM

Question. The stated mass for the neutron star in the article is 1.2 solar masses. This is below the Chandrasekhar limit. How might this occur?

mewo June 23, 2014 at 5:43 PM

You need an additional force on top of gravitational compression. This occurs inside supernovae.

viprept June 24, 2014 at 4:03 AM

This is the mass of remnant Neutron Star. Original Star’s mass must have been above Chandrashekhar Limit.

Manu June 23, 2014 at 6:24 PM

This diamond fiction, again ;_;

Back to physics: stars are not made of atoms, even cold white dwarfs. They’re made of a dense soup of atom nuclei and free electrons.
White dwarfs specifically are made of an ultra-dense soup of nuclei and ‘degenerate’ electrons’ (look it up on wikipedia). The density is 100,000s that of ordinary matter! Nuclei are pushed way too close together to form atoms even if the temperature went down all the way to zero; the electrons energy remains way too high for them to bond to the nuclei anyway.
The nuclei may be packed into a ‘crystalline structure’ but this will never be a carbon crystal, because there is no carbon in the ordinary matter sense, only carbon nuclei.

Potatoswatter June 23, 2014 at 9:11 PM

The center of a white dwarf is degenerate matter, but that doesn’t mean the surface is too. A little Googling reveals that the spectrum of a white dwarf (which is what the scientists in this article could not detect) is that of atomic hydrogen.

Wikipedia says that the hottest one in a thousand white dwarfs has a (spectroscopically) carbon-dominated atmosphere, I suppose due to mixing. Very cold ones may even have molecular hydrogen.

So, all the carbon nuclei in a cold white dwarf will indeed be locked away in degenerate matter below the surface. But that’s not to say white dwarfs never have atoms, or carbon atoms.

To be fair, the article does not mention diamonds or carbon crystals. That was added by UT. It does mention “crystallizing” which speeds cooling, but I suppose this refers to metallic hydrogen. (White dwarfs are insulated by gaseous hydrogen.)

Manu June 24, 2014 at 4:51 AM

Yes to atoms in star atmospheres and outer layers (not sure about white dwarfs outer layers though), but crystallization doesn’t happen there anyway (wikip: “at a late stage of cooling, it should crystallize, starting at the center of the star”).

Underlings June 24, 2014 at 2:07 PM

We need to immediately send an expedition to lower and attach a 24k gold band to the surface, and thus create the largest diamond ring in the universe!

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