Planck “Star” to Arise From Black Holes?

A new paper has been posted on the arxiv (a repository of research preprints) introducing the idea of a Planck star arising from a black hole.  These hypothetical objects wouldn’t be a star in the traditional sense, but rather the light emitted when a black hole dies at the hands of Hawking radiation.  The paper hasn’t been peer reviewed, but it presents an interesting idea and a possible observational test.

When a large star reaches the end of its life, it explodes as a supernova, which can cause its core to collapse into a black hole.  In the traditional model of a black hole, the material collapses down into an infinitesimal volume known as a singularity.  Of course this doesn’t take into account quantum theory.

Although we don’t have a complete theory of quantum gravity, we do know a few things.  One is that black holes shouldn’t last forever.  Because of quantum fluctuations near the event horizon of a black hole, a black hole will emit Hawking radiation.  As a result, a black hole will gradually lose mass as it radiates.  The amount of Hawking radiation it emits is inversely proportional to its size, so as the black hole gets smaller it will emit more and more Hawking radiation until it finally radiates completely away.

Because black holes don’t last forever, this has led Stephen Hawking and others to propose that black holes don’t have an event horizon, but rather an apparent horizon.  This would mean the material within a black hole would not collapse into a singularity, which is where this new paper comes in.

Diagram showing how matter approaches Planck density. Credit: Carlo Rovelli and Francesca Vidotto
Diagram showing how matter approaches Planck density. Credit: Carlo Rovelli and Francesca Vidotto

The authors propose that rather than collapsing into a singularity, the matter within a black hole will collapse until it is about a trillionth of a meter in size.  At that point its density would be on the order of the Planck density.  When the the black hole ends its life, this “Planck star” would be revealed.  Because this “star” would be at the Planck density, it would radiate at a specific wavelength of gamma rays.  So if they exist, a gamma ray telescope should be able to observe them.

Just to be clear, this is still pretty speculative.  So far there isn’t any observational evidence that such a Planck star exists.  It is, however, an interesting solution to the paradoxical side of black holes.

 

Home Computers Discover Gamma-Ray Pulsars

Imagine that you’re innocently running your computer in pursuit of helping data crunch a huge science project. Then, out of the thousands of machines running the project, yours happens to stumble across a discovery. That’s what happened to several volunteers with [email protected], which seeks pulsars in data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, among other projects.

“At first I was a bit dumbfounded and thought someone was playing a hoax on me. But after I did some research,” everything checked out. That someone as insignificant as myself could make a difference was amazing,” stated Kentucky resident Thomas M. Jackson, who contributed to the project.

Pulsars, a type of neutron star, are the leftovers of stars that exploded as supernovae. They rotate rapidly, with such precision in their rotation periods that they have sometimes been likened to celestial clocks. Although the discovery is exciting to the eight volunteers because they are the first to find these gamma-ray pulsars as part of a volunteer computing project, the pulsars also have some interesting scientific features.

Artist's illustration of a neutron star, a tiny remnant that remains after its predecessor star explodes. Here, the 12-mile (20-kilometer) sphere is compared with the size of Hannover, Germany. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Artist’s illustration of a neutron star, a tiny remnant that remains after its predecessor star explodes. Here, the 12-mile (20-kilometer) sphere is compared with the size of Hannover, Germany. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

The four pulsars were discovered in the plane of the Milky Way in an area that radio telescopes had looked at previously, but weren’t able to find themselves. This means that the pulsars are likely only visible in gamma rays, at least from the vantage point of Earth; the objects emit their radiation in a narrow direction with radio, but a wider stripe with gamma rays. (After the discoveries, astronomers used the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy’s 100-meter Effelsberg radio telescope and the Australian Parkes Observatory to peer at those spots in the sky, and still saw no radio signals.)

Two of the pulsars also “hiccup” or exhibit a pulsar glitch, when the rotation sped up and then fell back to the usual rotation period a few weeks later. Astronomers are still learning more about these glitches, but they do know that most of them happen in young pulsars. All four pulsars are likely between 30,000 and 60,000 years old.

Artist's conception of a gamma-ray pulsar. Gamma rays are shown in purple, and radio radiation in green. Credit: NASA/Fermi/Cruz de Wilde
Artist’s conception of a gamma-ray pulsar. Gamma rays are shown in purple, and radio radiation in green. Credit: NASA/Fermi/Cruz de Wilde

“The first-time discovery of gamma-ray pulsars by [email protected] is a milestone – not only for us but also for our project volunteers. It shows that everyone with a computer can contribute to cutting-edge science and make astronomical discoveries,” stated co-author Bruce Allen, principal investigator of [email protected] “I’m hoping that our enthusiasm will inspire more people to help us with making further discoveries.”

[email protected] is run jointly by the Center for Gravitation and Cosmology at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee and the Albert Einstein Institute in Hannover, Germany. It is funded by the National Science Foundation and the Max Planck Society. As for the volunteers, their names were mentioned in the scientific literature and they also received certificates of discovery for their work.

Source: Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics