European Asteroid Smasher Could Bolster Planetary Defense

Planetary Defense is a concept very few people heard of or took seriously – that is until last week’s humongous and totally unexpected meteor explosion over Russia sent millions of frightened residents ducking for cover, followed just hours later by Earth’s uncomfortably close shave with the 45 meter (150 ft) wide asteroid named 2012 DA14.

This ‘Cosmic Coincidence’ of potentially catastrophic space rocks zooming around Earth is a wakeup call that underscores the need to learn much more about the ever present threat from the vast array of unknown celestial debris in close proximity to Earth and get serious about Planetary Defense from asteroid impacts.

The European Space Agency’s (ESA) proposed Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission, or AIDA, could significantly bolster both our basic knowledge about asteroids in our neighborhood and perhaps even begin testing Planetary Defense concepts and deflection strategies.

After two years of work, research teams from the US and Europe have selected the mission’s target – a so called ‘binary asteroid’ named Didymos – that AIDA will intercept and smash into at about the time of its closest approach to Earth in 2022 when it is just 11 million kilometers away.

“AIDA is not just an asteroid mission, it is also meant as a research platform open to all different mission users,” says Andres Galvez, ESA studies manager.

Asteroid Didymos could provide a great platform for a wide variety of research endeavors because it’s actually a complex two body system with a moon – and they orbit each other. The larger body is roughly 800 meters across, while the smaller one is about 150 meters wide.

Didymos with its Moon
Didymos with its Moon. Credit: ESA

So the smaller body is some 15 times bigger than the Russian meteor and 3 times the size of Asteroid 2012 DA14 which flew just 27,700 km (17,200 mi) above Earth’s surface on Feb. 15, 2013.

The low cost AIDA mission would be comprised of two spacecraft – a mother ship and a collider. Two ships for two targets.

The US collider is named the Double Asteroid Redirection Test, or DART and would smash into the smaller body at about 6.25 km per second. The impact should change the pace at which the objects spin around each other.

ESA’s mothership is named Asteroid Impact Monitor, or AIM, and would carry out a detailed science survey of Didymos both before and after the violent collision.

“The project has value in many areas,” says Andy Cheng, AIDA lead at Johns Hopkins’ Applied Physics Laboratory, “from applied science and exploration to asteroid resource utilisation.” Cheng was a key member of NASA’s NEAR mission that first orbited and later landed on the near Earth Asteroid named Eros back in 2001.

Recall that back in 2005, NASA’s Deep Impact mission successfully lobbed a projectile into Comet Tempel 1 that unleashed a fiery explosion and spewing out vast quantities of material from the comet’s interior, including water and organics.

NASA’s Deep Impact images Comet Tempel 1 alive with light after colliding with the impactor spacecraft on July 4, 2005.  ESA and NASA are now proposing the AIDA mission to smash into Asteroid Didymos.  CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD
NASA’s Deep Impact images Comet Tempel 1 alive with light after colliding with the impactor spacecraft on July 4, 2005. ESA and NASA are now proposing the AIDA mission to smash into Asteroid Didymos. CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD

ESA has invited researchers to submit AIDA experiment proposals on a range of ideas including anything that deals with hypervelocity impacts, planetary science, planetary defense, human exploration or innovation in spacecraft operations. The deadline is 15 March.

“It is an exciting opportunity to do world-leading research of all kinds on a problem that is out of this world,” says Stephan Ulamec from the DLR German Aerospace Center. “And it helps us learn how to work together in international missions tackling the asteroid impact hazard.”

The Russian meteor exploded without warning in mid air with a force of nearly 500 kilotons of TNT, the equivalent of about 20–30 times the atomic bombs detonated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Over 1200 people were injured in Russia’s Chelyabinsk region and some 4000 buildings were damaged at a cost exceeding tens of millions of dollars. A ground impact would have decimated cities like New York, Moscow or Beijing with millions likely killed.

ESA’s AIDA mission concept and NASA’s approved Osiris-REx asteroid sample return mission will begin the path to bolster our basic knowledge about asteroids and hopefully inform us on asteroid deflection and Planetary Defense strategies.

Ken Kremer

Near-Earth asteroid Eros imaged from NASA’s orbiting NEAR spacecraft. Credit: NASA
Near-Earth asteroid Eros imaged from NASA’s orbiting NEAR spacecraft. Credit: NASA

First Radar Observations of Asteroid 2012 DA14

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has released an initial view of radar observations of asteroid 2012 DA14 generated from data obtained by NASA’s Goldstone Solar System Radar, taken on Feb. 15-16, 2013 as the asteroid headed away from Earth. While these first radar data aren’t very picturesque, they do reveal one obvious thing: this asteroid is tumbler.


The movie is comprised of 73 radar “images” looped nine times. JPL said that during the observations, the space rock’s distance increased from 120,000 to 314,000 km (74,000 to 195,000 miles) from Earth. The resolution here is 4 meters per pixel.

The images span close to eight hours and clearly show an elongated object undergoing roughly one full rotation. JPL said the images suggest that the asteroid has a long axis of about 40 meters (130 feet). The radar observations were led by scientists Lance Benner and Marina Brozovic of JPL. Additional Goldstone radar observations were taken as the asteroid continued to move away from Earth, on February 18, 19, with more observations scheduled on the 20th.

Radar is one of the best techniques for studying an asteroid’s size, shape, rotation state, surface features and surface roughness, and for improving calculations of its orbit. Radar measurements of asteroid distances and velocities often enable computation of asteroid orbits much further into the future than if radar observations weren’t available.

Source: JPL

Photos and Videos of Asteroid 2012 DA14 ‘Running Fast Among the Stars’

Yesterday a 50 meter (160 foot) rock passed just over 27,000 kilometers (17,000 miles) from the Earth’s surface. This big space rock, named 2012 DA14, dodged us while another smaller and unrelated asteroid gave us an extraterrestrial punch over Russia (read more about that here). Telescopes around the world — both big professional ones and smaller amateur ones — focused on the fast-moving 2012 DA14, whizzing along at 28,100 kilometers per hour (17,450 miles per hour), or 7.82 kilometers per second (4.8 miles per second) relative to Earth.

Here are some of the images from around the world of 2012 DA14. Noted French astrophotographer Thierry Legault sent Universe Today a note that he “easily spotted it visually through the 4″ refractor. It was running very fast amongst the stars!” he said.

In a really nice piece of astrophotography, François Colas from the Pic du Midi observatory in southern France captured the fast moving asteroid with just the right combination of exposure, allowing him to get the asteroid as a point and not a line. He used a Pentax K5 – 6400 ASA – 85mm f/1.4. Field of view 15°

Richard Fleet from Wiltshire, England also got a good capture of the asteroid. “Clouds were a problem most of the evening but I did manage to catch it going past the Coma Berenices cluster,” he said via email. “I saw the asteroid several times in 15×75 binoculars and the motion was obvious in seconds when it was near a star, though it took a bit longer to be sure in the more barren areas.”

He used a used a 200mm lens on a Canon 5D for the very nice sequence as it ‘ran among the stars’:

Image taken remotely from Spain on February 15, 2013 at 22:31UT, 3 hours after the close approach. Credit: Ernesto Guido and Nick Howes/Remanzacco Observatory.
Image taken remotely from Spain on February 15, 2013 at 22:31UT, 3 hours after the close approach. Credit: Ernesto Guido and Nick Howes/Remanzacco Observatory.

The Remanzacco Observatory team has been following 2012 DA14 for a few days (click on the image above for their animation if it not ‘animating’.) See their website for several different shots from various remote telescopes around the world.

 This image shows asteroid 2012 DA14 and the Eta Carinae Nebula, with the white box highlighting the asteroid's path. The image was taken using a 3" refractor equipped with a color CCD camera. The telescope is located at the Siding Spring Observatory in Australia and is maintained and owned by iTelescope.net. Credit: Aaron Kingery/NASA/MSFC

This image shows asteroid 2012 DA14 and the Eta Carinae Nebula, with the white box highlighting the asteroid’s path. The image was taken using a 3″ refractor equipped with a color CCD camera. The telescope is located at the Siding Spring Observatory in Australia and is maintained and owned by iTelescope.net. Credit: Aaron Kingery/NASA/MSFC

Gianluca Masi from the Virtual Telescope Project held a special webcast for the close approach of this asteroid. He reported they had more than 150,000 viewers from 166 countries. “Unfortunately, the clouds came, too, but at least we had some clear skies soon after the minimum distance was [reached],” he wrote. “For the occasion, the PlaneWave 17? robotic unit was used, trusting its exceptional Paramount ME robotic mount. The mount was controlled by TheSkyX Pro suite and the software was perfectly tuned to track this VERY DIFFICULT target. The results shown here speak by themselves: the asteroid was perfectly tracked, despite it was moving at 0.65 degrees per minute! All this after the scope was just slewed, without any manual adjustment! Amazing.”

2012 DA14 was about 36,500 km from Earth at the time.

Animation of 2012 DA14 created from 17 images, each with 3 second of exposures. Credit: Gianluca Masi, Virtual Telescope Project. Click on the image to animate if it is not 'moving' in your browser
Animation of 2012 DA14 created from 17 images, each with 3 second of exposures. Credit: Gianluca Masi, Virtual Telescope Project. Click on the image to animate if it is not ‘moving’ in your browser.

The Talmassons astronomy club from Udine, Italy took this imagery:

Shahrin Ahmad from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia posted some of his images on Google+:

A 30 second exposure of Asteroid 2012 DA14 passing by Theta Crateris on Feb. 15, 2013 at 19:22 UTC, as seen from Malaysia. The Moon is added for comparison.Credit: Shahrin Ahmad
A 30 second exposure of Asteroid 2012 DA14 passing by Theta Crateris on Feb. 15, 2013 at 19:22 UTC, as seen from Malaysia. The Moon is added for comparison.Credit: Shahrin Ahmad

Nahum Mendez Chazarra from Spain’s Centro de Investigación y Divulgación Astronómica del Mediterráneo sent the video below. You can see more images on their Facebook page.

The Bareket Observatory in Israel had a live webcast of 2012 DA14’s close pass, and they reported they had more than 150K viewers overall. Here is a video they put together of some of the highlights of their observations:

Asteroid 2012 DA14 flies by NGC 4244 at a distance of 14 million light years. Credit and copyright: David G. Strange.
Asteroid 2012 DA14 flies by NGC 4244 at a distance of 14 million light years. Credit and copyright: David G. Strange.

Nick Rose from San Mateo, California tracked 2012 DA14 on its way as it headed away from Earth, using a 6″ reflector with a high end Orion CCD imager on a modified Vixen Super Polaris mount, on the evening of February 15. “I inverted the image to make it easier to see the asteroid,” Nick said, “and the video consists of 100 10 second Binned 1×1 images.”

Mikko Suominen, a freelance science journalist from Finland created this 3-D animation based on the JPL’s information graphics using rendering software called Blender. “They ar not extremely precise,” Suominen said via email, “but for popular science purposes I think they are accurate enough.”

Want to get your astrophoto featured on Universe Today? Join our Flickr group or send us your images by email (this means you’re giving us permission to post them). Please explain what’s in the picture, when you took it, the equipment you used, etc.

Weekly Space Hangout, Feb. 15, 2013: Space Rocks Edition

We interrupt your regular Weekly Space Hangout with this extra special edition to cover to the two asteroid-related events: the Russian meteor explosion and the close pass of Asteroid 2012 DA14.

Joining us for the space round table:
Dr. Ian O’Neill, Dr. Pamela Gay, Dr. Thad Szabo, Dr. Nicole Gugliucci, Nancy Atkinson, and Scott Lewis

Host: Fraser Cain

We record the Weekly Space Hangout every Friday at 12 pm Pacific / 3 pm Eastern. You can watch us live on Google+, Cosmoquest or listen after as part of the Astronomy Cast podcast feed (audio only).

Latest Video of Asteroid 2012 DA14 Steaking Towards Close Shave with Earth – as Meteor explodes over Russia

Here’s the latest video of the fast approaching asteroid named 2012 DA14 that’s screeching towards our planet and set to give us all a very close shave this afternoon, shortly after 2 PM EST. NASA TV will provide Live coverage starting at 2 PM EST. Continue reading “Latest Video of Asteroid 2012 DA14 Steaking Towards Close Shave with Earth – as Meteor explodes over Russia”

Russian Meteor Not Related to Asteroid Flyby, NASA Confirms

The meteor that streaked over the skies of Russia — creating a shockwave that shattered windows, injuring upwards of 1,000 people — is not related to the asteroid that will whiz past Earth later today, (Feb.15), NASA has confirmed.

As many of our readers have noted in comments on our previous story on the Russian meteor, the trajectory of the Russian meteorite was significantly different than the trajectory of the asteroid 2012 DA14, making it a completely unrelated object.

“Information is still being collected about the Russian meteorite and analysis is preliminary at this point,” NASA said in a statement. “In videos of the meteor, it is seen to pass from left to right in front of the rising sun, which means it was traveling from north to south. Asteroid DA14’s trajectory is in the opposite direction, from south to north.”

Images and video of the Russian bolide taken from satellites in Earth orbit confirm the trajectory:

An image from the SEVIRI instrument aboard the Meteosat-10 geostationary satellite. The vapor trail left by the meteor that was seen near Chelyabinsk in Russia on 15th February 2013 is visible in the center of the image. Original data Copyright EUMETSAT 2013
An image from the SEVIRI instrument aboard the Meteosat-10 geostationary satellite. The vapor trail left by the meteor that was seen near Chelyabinsk in Russia on 15th February 2013 is visible in the center of the image. Original data Copyright EUMETSAT 2013

Reports are still coming in, but perhaps more than 1,000 people were injured, according to a statement from the Russian Emergency Ministry, primarily by glass cuts when windows were shattered from the shockwave blast. The vapor trail of the meteor was visible before the blast, so many people were standing in front of windows, looking at the trail visible across the sky.

The meteor appeared in the skies at around 09:25 a.m. local time in the Chelyabinsk region, near the southern Ural Mountains. It disintegrated and ‘exploded’ about 30-50 kilometers above Earth’s surface. The fireball blinded drivers and a subsequent explosion blew out windows. Reports of damaged buildings are being checked.

Initial estimates for the Russian Meteor are that it was a 1.5 meter-wide object weighing about 10 tons, traveling at 15 km/s.

Meteosat-10 image of Meteoroid trail aligned border with Kazakhstan in Google Maps. Credit: Paul Attivissimo
Meteosat-10 image of Meteoroid trail aligned border with Kazakhstan in Google Maps. Credit: Paul Attivissimo

Nature News is reporting that this morning was the largest recorded object to strike the Earth in more than a century. “Infrasound data collected by a network designed to watch for nuclear weapons testing suggests that today’s blast released hundreds of kilotonnes of energy. That would make it far more powerful than the nuclear weapon tested by North Korea just days ago and the largest rock crashing on the planet since a meteor broke up over Siberia’s Tunguska river in 1908<" Nature News said. [caption id="attachment_100015" align="aligncenter" width="580"]Satellite images from the European MET-7 weather satellite. Credit: EUMETSAT.  Satellite images from the European MET-7 weather satellite. Credit: EUMETSAT. [/caption]

We’ll continue to provide updates on this story as they become available.

Astronomers Provide a Peek at Asteroid 2012 DA14

Our friends Ernesto Guido and Nick Howes from the Remanzacco Observatory — along with Edward Gomez from the Faulkes Telescope — have nabbed a look at asteroid 2012 DA14 as it was approaching Earth on Feb. 14, 2013 at around 11:06UT. Guido and Howes said the asteroid was about 748,000 kilometers (465,000 miles) from Earth, and was only about magnitude 17 in brightness. The animation was created from 3 images taken by Faulkes Telescope South through a 2.0-m f/10.0 Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a CCD. (You may have to click on the image for the animation, depending on your browser.)

See their website for some unique animations and detailed info about tomorrow’s (Feb. 15, 2013) close flyby of this 50 meter- (164 feet-) wide space rock.

Watch Live as Asteroid 2012 DA14 Whizzes Past Earth

Want to keep tabs on asteroid 2012 DA14 as it whizzes past Earth tomorrow (Feb. 15)? NASA TV and several online astronomy outlets will be tracking this asteroid as it makes its record-setting close shave. This marks the first time there has been an asteroid of this size passing this close that we’ve known a year beforehand. No, there’s no chance it will hit us, but it will come within 27,630 kilometers (17,168 miles) from the surface of the Earth, inside the ring of geosynchronous satellites girdling our planet Earth. It will closest to Earth at 2:25 p.m. EST (19:25 UTC).

Find out how you can watch on TV or online as this 50 meter- (164 feet-) wide space rock goes by:

NASA Television will provide commentary starting at 2 p.m. EST (11 a.m. PST, 19:00 UTC) on Friday, Feb. 15. This flyby will provide a unique opportunity for researchers to study a near-Earth object up close. You can either watch the feed below, or on your own television if you get NASA TV, or online here.



Video streaming by Ustream

The half-hour broadcast from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., will incorporate real-time animation to show the location of the asteroid in relation to Earth, along with live or near real-time views of the asteroid from observatories in Australia, weather permitting.

If you are planning to try and observe this asteroid yourself, here’s our detailed article about how to do it.

Here are other webcasts that are planned:

Virtual Telescope Project, Italy

Astronomer Gianluca Masi from the Virtual Telescope Project will provide live views of asteroid 2012 DA14 from Ceccano, Italy, beginning at 5 p.m. EST (2200 GMT). You can watch at this link.

Bareket Observatory, Israel

The Bareket Observatory in Israel will have a free live webcast of the 2012 DA14 asteroid flyby on Friday from at 2 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. EST (19:00 to 20:39 UTC).

Here’s the link to this webcast.

“The observatory will offer a special live view of the close approach, using a remote telescope coupled with a cooled CCD camera, accessible via the Internet,” said the observatory team.

Slooh Space Camera, Africa and Arizona

The Slooh Space Camera webcast will provide views of the asteroid from observatories in the Canary Islands (off the west coast of Africa) and in Arizona. They will also be viewable on iOS and Android mobile devices. Just go to the Slooh website on your device.

Slooh’s webcast will begin on the 15th at 6 p.m. PST / 9 p.m. EST / 02:00 UTC (2/16). The webcasts will feature real-time commentary by Slooh Space Camera’s Paul Cox, astronomer Bob Berman of Astronomy Magazine, and Matt Francis, the manager of Prescott Observatory at Embry-Riddle University in Arizona.

Here’s the link to the Slooh Space Camera website.

See an Asteroid’s-Eye-View of Friday’s Close Approach Between 2012 DA14 and Earth

If you haven’t heard yet, this Friday, February 15, 2013 will be a close flyby of an asteroid named 2012 DA14. It’s turning out to be a highly anticipated event, as it will pass just 27,630 kilometers (17,168 miles) from the surface of the Earth, well within the range of many Earth-orbiting satellites. If you could watch the action from the vantage point of space, what would this flyby look like? Analytical Graphics, Inc., a company that creates modeling and analysis software for space, defense and other areas, has put together an animation which includes the asteroid’s trajectory as it approaches Earth, a closeup of the asteroid during its closest approach, a highlighted portion of Earth orbit that it is expected to pass through, and other interesting data.

The video above also provides a view of the asteroid’s pass by Earth below the geosynchronous orbit belt, how it will crossing the equatorial plane from South to North, a size comparison, and how the Earth/Moon will perturbs the asteroid’s orbit.

This asteroid is about 50 meters (164 feet) in size. Asteroid experts, including NASA’s Don Yeomans has , said there is no possibility of this asteroid hitting Earth, and they have also effectively ruled out the chance of any satellites getting hit.

The asteroid will not be bright enough to be visible with the unaided eye, but will be visible to backyard astronomers with good telescopes. The timing of the pass will allow viewers in eastern Europe, Africa, Australia and New Zealand to have the best chance of seeing this asteroid.

See our complete guide on how to see Asteroid 2012 DA14.

This asteroid must be stirring the imaginations of many; already renowned and award-winning space artist David A. Hardy has created a painting of his impression of 2012 DA14’s approach to Earth:

Thanks to Hardy for allowing us to post his lovely artwork. You can see more at his website, and he did an interview with us last year, which you can read here.

Animation courtesy of (AGI).

45 meter Asteroid to Skirt Very Near Earth on Feb 15

Our home planet is due for a record setting space encounter on Friday (Feb. 15) of this week, when a space rock roughly half a football field wide skirts very close by Earth at break neck speed and well inside the plethora of hugely expensive communications and weather satellites that ring around us in geosynchronous orbit.

“There is no possibility of an Earth impact” by the Near Earth Asteroid (NEO) known as 2012 DA 14, said Don Yeomans, NASA’s foremost asteroid expert at a media briefing. Well that’s good news for us – but a little late for the dinosaurs.

At its closest approach in less than 4 days, the 45 meter (150 feet) wide Asteroid 2012 DA14 will zoom by within an altitude of 27,700 kilometers (17,200 miles). That is some 8000 km (5000 miles) inside the ring of geosynchronous satellites, but far above most Earth orbiting satellites, including the 6 person crew currently working aboard the International Space Station.

Although the likelihood of a satellite collision is extremely remote, NASA is actively working with satellite providers to inform them of the space rocks path.

The razor thin close shave takes place at about 2:24 p.m. EST (11:24 a.m. PST and 1924 UTC) as the asteroid passes swiftly by at a speed of about 7.8 kilometers per second (17,400 MPH)- or about 8 times the speed of a rifle bullet. For some perspective, it will be only about 1/13th of the distance to the moon at its closest.

“Asteroid 2012 DA14 will make a very close Earth approach, traveling rapidly from South to North and be moving at about two full moons per minute,” said Yeomans, who manages NASA’s Near-Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. “That’s very fast for a celestial object.”

Diagram depicting the passage of asteroid 2012 DA14 through the Earth-moon system on Feb. 15, 2013. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Diagram depicting the passage of asteroid 2012 DA14 through the Earth-moon system on Feb. 15, 2013. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

No known asteroid has ever passed so near to Earth.

“This is a record predicted close approach for a known object this size,” stated Yeomans. “Such close flybys happen every 40 years on average. An actual Earth collision would happen about every 1200 years.”

Read also: Asteroid 2012 DA14: Observing Prospects and How to See It

Yeomans said that if an asteroid the size of 2012 DA14 fell to Earth, the impact effect would be similar to the 1908 Tunguska event in Siberia. That was an air blast event that leveled trees over an area greater than about 800 square miles.

So the local effect on human cities for example of a 50 meter wide asteroid impact would be deadly and utterly devastating. But it would not be catastrophic to all life on Earth. Nevertheless, at this moment, Earth has no defenses against asteroids other than talk.

By comparison, the K-T event that caused the mass extinction of the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago was caused by an asteroid about 10 km (6 mi) in diameter. About 2/3 of all species went extinct. If 2012 DA14 impacted Earth the force would be equivalent to about 2.4 megatons of energy (2.4 million tons of TNT), said Yeomans.

Artists concept of meteoroide impact event
Artists concept of meteoroide impact event

There is no danger to the ISS crew and apparently they won’t have any chance to observe it.

“The ISS is not positioned right for observations,” Lindley Johnson, program executive, Near Earth Object Observations Program, NASA Headquarters, Washington, told Universe Today.

“No NASA space-based assets will be making measurements,” Lindley told me. “The asteroid is moving to fast.”

However, radar astronomers do plan to take images around eight hours after the flyby using the Goldstone antenna in California’s Mojave Desert, which is part of NASA’s Deep Space Network.

Some skilful and knowledgeable Earthlings might have a chance to see the asteroid hurtling by with binoculars or a small telescope.

“The asteroid will be observable in the dark sky in Eastern Europe, Asia and Australia, achieving about 7.5 magnitude, somewhat fainter than naked eye visibility,” explained Yeomans. “Closest approach will be over Indonesia.”

Astronomers at the La Sagra Sky Survey program in southern Spain discovered the asteroid in February 2012 just after its last Earth flyby, at a fairly distant 7 Earth-Moon distances. They reported the finding to the Minor Planet Center.

NASA’s NEO group and collaborators in Pisa, Italy then use such data to predict future flight paths and look into past trajectories as well.

Yeomans said that the Feb 15 flyby will be the closest for the next 100 years and its orbit will be perturbed so that it comes back less frequently – changing its orbital class from Apollo to Aten.

Due to its small size and recent discovery, not much is known about the composition of 2012 DA14. It might be silicate rock.

Small space rocks hit Earth on a daily basis amounting to about 100 tons. Car sized rocks hit weekly.

Stay Alert !

Ken Kremer

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