From the study of meteorite fragments that have fallen to Earth, scientists have confirmed that bacteria can not only survive the harsh conditions of space but can transport biological material between planets. Because of how common meteorite impacts were when life emerged on Earth (ca. 4 billion years ago), scientists have been pondering whether they may have delivered the necessary ingredients for life to thrive.
In a recent study, an international team led by astrobiologist Tetyana Milojevic from the University of Vienna examined a specific type of ancient bacteria that are known to thrive on extraterrestrial meteorites. By examining a meteorite that contained traces of this bacteria, the team determined that these bacteria prefer to feed on meteors – a find which could provide insight into how life emerged on Earth.
For decades, ever since the Pioneer and Voyager missions passed through the outer Solar System, scientists have speculated that life might exist within icy bodies like Jupiter’s moon Europa. However, thanks the Cassinimission, scientists now believe that other moons in the outer Solar System – such as Saturn’s moon Enceladus – could possibly harbor life as well.
For instance, Cassini observed plume activity coming from Enceladus’ southern polar region that indicated the presence of hydrothermal activity inside. What’s more, these plumes contained organic molecules and hydrated minerals, which are potential indications of life. To see if life could thrive inside this moon, a team of scientists conducted a test where strains of Earth bacteria were subjected to conditions similar to what is found inside Enceladus.
For the sake of their study, the team chose to work with three strains of methanogenic archaea known as methanothermococcus okinawensis. This type of microorganism thrives in low-oxygen environments and consumes chemical products known to exist on Enceladus – such as methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and molecular hydrogen (H2) – and emit methane as a metabolic byproduct. As they state:
“To investigate growth of methanogens under Enceladus-like conditions, three thermophilic and methanogenic strains, Methanothermococcus okinawensis (65 °C), Methanothermobacter marburgensis (65 °C), and Methanococcus villosus (80 °C), all able to fix carbon and gain energy through the reduction of CO2 with H2 to form CH4, were investigated regarding growth and biological CH4 production under different headspace gas compositions…”
These strains were selected because of their ability to grow in a temperature range that is characteristic of the vicinity around hydrothermal vents, in a chemically defined medium, and at low partial pressures of molecular hydrogen. This is consistent with what has been observed in Enceladus’ plumes and what is believed to exist within the moon’s interior.
These types of archaea can still be found on Earth today, lingering in deep-see fissures and around hydrothermal vents. In particular, the strain of M. okinawensis has been determined to exist in only one location around the deep-sea hydrothermal vent field at Iheya Ridge in the Okinawa Trough near Japan. Since this vent is located at a depth of 972 m (3189 ft) below sea level, this suggests that this strain has a tolerance toward high pressure.
For many years, scientists have suspected that Earth’s hydrothermal vents played a vital role in the emergence of life, and that similar vents could exist within the interior of moons like Europa, Ganymede, Titan, Enceladus, and other bodies in the outer Solar System. As a result, the research team believed that methanogenic archaea could also exist within these bodies.
After subjecting the strains to Enceladus-like temperature, pressure and chemical conditions in a laboratory environment, they found that one of the three strains was able to flourish and produce methane. The strain even managed to survive after the team introduced harsh chemicals that are present on Enceladus, and which are known to inhibit the growth of microbes. As they conclude in their study:
“In this study, we show that the methanogenic strain M. okinawensis is able to propagate and/or to produce CH4 under putative Enceladus-like conditions. M. okinawensis was cultivated under high-pressure (up to 50 bar) conditions in defined growth medium and gas phase, including several potential inhibitors that were detected in Enceladus’ plume.”
From this, they determined that some of the methane found in Enceladus’ plumes were likely produced by the presence of methanogenic microbes. As Simon Rittmann, a microbiologist at the University of Vienna and lead author of the study, explained in an interview with The Verge. “It’s likely this organism could be living on other planetary bodies,” he said. “And it could be really interesting to investigate in future missions.”
In the coming decades, NASA and other space agencies plan to send multiple mission to the Jupiter and Saturn systems to investigate their “ocean worlds” for potential signs of life. In the case of Enceladus, this will most likely involve a lander that will set down around the southern polar region and collect samples from the surface to determine the presence of biosignatures.
Alternately, an orbiter mission may be developed that will fly through Enceladus’ plumes and collect bioreadings directly from the moon’s ejecta, thus picking up where Cassini left off. Whatever form the mission takes, the discoveries are expected to be a major breakthrough. At long last, we may finally have proof that Earth is not the only place in the Solar System where live can exist.
Be sure to check out John Michael Godier’s video titled “Encedalus and the Conditions for Life” as well:
Life on Earth has had a long and turbulent history. Scientists estimate that roughly 4 billion years ago, just 500 million years after planet Earth formed, the first single-celled lifeforms arose. By the Archean Eon (4 to 2.5 billion years ago), multi-celled lifeforms are believed to have emerged. While the existence of such organisms (Archaea) has been inferred from carbon isotopes found in ancient rocks, fossil evidence has remained elusive.
All of that has changed, thanks to a recent study performed by a team of researchers from UCLA and the University of Wisconsin–Madison. After examining ancient rock samples from Western Australia, the team determined that they contained the fossilized remains of diverse organisms that are 3.465 billion years old. Combined with the recent spate of exoplanet discoveries, this study strengthens the theory that life is plentiful in the Universe.
These 11 fossils were diverse in nature and the researchers divided them into five species groups based on their apparent biological functions. Whereas two of the fossil samples appear to have performed a primitive form of photosynthesis, another apparently produced methane gas. The remaining two appear to have been methane-consumers, which they used to build and maintain their cell walls (much like how mammals use fat).
As J. William Schopf – a professor of paleobiology in the UCLA College and the lead author on the study – indicated in a UCLA Newsroom press release:
“By 3.465 billion years ago, life was already diverse on Earth; that’s clear — primitive photosynthesizers, methane producers, methane users. These are the first data that show the very diverse organisms at that time in Earth’s history, and our previous research has shown that there were sulfur users 3.4 billion years ago as well.
This study, which is the most detailed ever conducted on microorganisms preserved as ancient fossils, builds on work that Schopf and his associates have been performing for over two decades. Back in 1993, Schopf and another team of researchers conducted a study that first described these types of fossils. This was followed in 2002 by another study which substantiated their biological origin.
In this latest study, Schopf and his team established what kind of organisms they are and how complex they are. To do this, they analyzed the microorganisms using a technique called Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), which reveals the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-13. Whereas carbon-12 is stable and the most common type found in nature, carbon-13 is a less common but similarly stable isotope that is used in organic chemistry research.
By separating the carbon from each fossil into its constituent isotopes and determining their ratios, the team was able to conclude how long ago the microorganisms lived, as well as how they lived. This task was performed by the Wisconsin researchers, who were led by professor John Valley. “The differences in carbon isotope ratios correlate with their shapes,” said Valley. “Their C-13-to-C-12 ratios are characteristic of biology and metabolic function.”
According to the current scientific consensus, advanced photosynthesis had not yet evolved and oxygen would not appear on Earth until 500 million years later. By 2 billion year ago, concentrations of oxygen gas began increasing rapidly. This means that these fossils, being around roughly 1 billion years after Earth formed, would have lived at a time when their was little oxygen in the atmosphere.
Given that oxygen would be poisonous to these types of primitive photosynthesizers, they are quite rare today. In truth, they can only be found in places where there is sufficient light but no oxygen, something which is rarely found in combination. What’s more, the rocks themselves were a source of great interest since the average lifespan of rock exposed to the surface of Earth is only about 200 million years.
When Shopf first began his career, the oldest-known rock samples were 500 million years old. This means that the fossil-bearing rocks he and his team examined are as old as rocks on Earth can get. To find fossilized life in such ancient samples demonstrates that diverse organisms and a life cycle had already evolved on Earth by the early Archaen Eon, something which scientists only suspected up until this point.
These findings naturally have implications for the study of how and when life emerged on Earth. Beyond Earth, the study also has implications since it demonstrates that life emerged when Earth was still very young and in a primitive state. It is therefore not unlikely that a similar process has been taking place elsewhere in the Universe. As Schopf explained:
“This tells us life had to have begun substantially earlier and it confirms that it was not difficult for primitive life to form and to evolve into more advanced microorganisms. But, if the conditions are right, it looks like life in the universe should be widespread.”
This study was made possible thanks to funding provided by the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Looking to the future, Schopf indicated that the same technology used to date these fossils will likely be used to study rocks brought back by NASA’s crewed mission to Mars. Scheduled for the 2030s, this mission will entail retrieving samples obtained by the Mars 2020 Rover and bringing them back to Earth for analysis.