What is the Kardashev Scale?

In 1961, Russian-Soviet astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev published a paper where he introduced the Kardashev Scale, a means of classifying extraterrestrial civilizations based on the amount of energy the could harness.

China’s FAST Telescope Could Detect Self-Replicating Alien Probes

One of the most challenging questions to answer when confronting the Fermi Paradox is why exponentially scaling technologies haven’t taken over the universe by now.  Commonly known as von Neumann probes, the idea of a self-replicating swarm of extraterrestrial robots has been a staple of science fiction for decades.  But so far, there has never …