Mars’ Gale Crater was Filled with Water for Much Longer Than Anyone Thought

Layers at the base of Mt. Sharp. These visible layers in Gale Crater show the chapters of the geological history of Mars in this image from NASA's Curiosity rover. New evidence from this area shows that water persisted on Mars for longer than thought. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS.

Even with all we’ve learned about Mars in recent years, it doesn’t stack up against all we still don’t know and all we hope to find out. We know that Mars was once warm and wet, a conclusion that was less certain a couple of decades ago. Now, scientists are working on uncovering the details of Mars’s ancient water.

New research shows that the Gale Crater, the landing spot for NASA’s MSL Curiosity, held water for a longer time than scientists thought.

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How Are Rocks Formed?

A'a lava

As a terrestrial planet, Earth is divided into layers based on their chemical and rheological properties. And whereas its interior region – the inner and outer core – are mostly made up of iron and nickel, the mantle and crust are largely composed of silicate rock. The crust and upper mantle are collectively known as the lithosphere, from which the tectonic plates are composed.

It in the lithosphere that rocks are formed and reformed. And depending on the type of rock, the process through which they are created varies. In all, there are three types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Each type of rock has a different origin. Therefore, the question, “How are rocks formed?” begs three distinct answers.

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