Planets Fact Sheet

Mercury
Mass: 0.3302 x 1024 kg
Volume: 6.083 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 2439.7 km
Average diameter: 4879.4 km
Mean density: 5.427 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 4.3 km/s
Surface gravity: 3.7 m/s2
Visual magnitude: -0.42
Natural satellites: 0
Rings? – No
Semimajor axis: 57,910,000 km
Orbit period: 87.969 days
Perihelion: 46,000,000 km
Aphelion: 69,820,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 47.87 km/s
Maximum orbital velocity: 58.98 km/s
Minimum orbital velocity: 38.86 km/s
Orbit inclination: 7.00°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.2056
Sidereal rotation period: 1407.6 hours
Length of day: 4222.6 hours
Discovery: Known since prehistoric times
Minimum distance from Earth: 77,300,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 221,900,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 13 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 4.5 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: -1.9

Venus
Mass: 4.8685 x 1024 kg
Volume: 92.843 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 6051.8 km
Average diameter: 12103.6 km
Mean density: 5.243 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 10.36 km/s
Surface gravity: 8.87 m/s2
Visual magnitude: -4.40
Natural satellites: 0
Rings? – No
Semimajor axis: 108,210,000 km
Orbit period: 224.701 days
Perihelion: 107,480,000 km
Aphelion: 108,940,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 35.02 km/s
Maximum orbital velocity: 35.26 km/s
Minimum orbital velocity: 34.79 km/s
Orbit inclination: 3.39°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0067
Sidereal rotation period: 5832.5 hours
Length of day: 2802.0 hours
Discovery: Known since prehistoric times
Minimum distance from Earth: 38,200,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 261,000,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 66.0 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 9.7 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: -4.6

Earth
Mass: 5.9736 x 1024 kg
Volume: 108.321 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 6,371.0 km
Average diameter: 12,742 km
Mean density: 5.515 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 11.186 km/s
Surface gravity: 9.798 m/s2
Visual magnitude: -3.86
Natural satellites: 1
Rings? – No
Semimajor axis: 149,600,000 km
Orbit period: 365.256 days
Perihelion: 147,090,000 km
Aphelion: 152,100,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 29.78 km/s
Maximum orbital velocity: 30.29 km/s
Minimum orbital velocity: 29.29 km/s
Orbit inclination: 0.00°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0167
Sidereal rotation period: 23.9345 hours
Length of day: 24.0000 hours
Axial tilt: 23.45°

Mars
Mass: 0.64185 x 1024 kg
Volume: 16.318 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 3,389.5 km
Average diameter: 6,779 km
Mean density: 3.933 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 5.03 km/s
Surface gravity: 3.71 m/s2
Visual magnitude: -1.52
Natural satellites: 2
Rings? – No
Semimajor axis: 227,920,000 km
Orbit period: 686.980 days
Perihelion: 206,620,000 km
Aphelion: 249,230,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 24.13 km/s
Orbit inclination: 1.850°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0935
Sidereal rotation period: 24.6229 hours
Length of day: 24.6597 hours
Axial tilt: 25.19 °
Discovery: Known since prehistoric times
Minimum distance from Earth: 55,700,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 401,300,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 25.1 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 3.5 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: -2.91

Jupiter
Mass: 1,898.6 x 1024 kg
Volume: 143,128 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 69,911 km
Average diameter: 139,822 km
Mean density: 1.326 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 59.5 km/s
Surface gravity: 24.79 m/s2
Natural satellites: 63
Rings? – Yes
Semimajor axis: 778,570,000 km
Orbit period: 4,332.589 days
Perihelion: 740,520,000 km
Aphelion: 816,620,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 13.07 km/s
Orbit inclination: 1.304°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0489
Sidereal rotation period: 9.9250 hours
Length of day: 9.9259 hours
Axial tilt: 3.13°
Discovery: Known since prehistoric times
Minimum distance from Earth: 588,500,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 968,100,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 50.1 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 29.8 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: -2.94

Saturn
Mass: 568.46 x 1024 kg
Volume: 82,713 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 58,232 km
Average diameter: 116,464 km
Mean density: 0.687 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 35.5 km/s
Surface gravity: 10.44 m/s2
Natural satellites: 60
Rings? – Yes
Semimajor axis: 1,433,530,000 km
Orbit period: 10,759.22 days
Perihelion: 1,352,550,000 km
Aphelion: 1,514,500,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 9.69 km/s
Orbit inclination: 2.485°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0565
Sidereal rotation period: 10.656 hours
Length of day: 10.656 hours
Axial tilt: 26.73°
Discovery: Known since prehistoric times
Minimum distance from Earth: 1,195,500,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 1,658,500,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 20.1 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 14.5 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: 0.43

Uranus
Mass: 86.832 x 1024 kg
Volume: 6,833 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 25,362 km
Average diameter: 50,724 km
Mean density: 1.270 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 21.3 km/s
Surface gravity: 8.87 m/s2
Natural satellites: 27
Rings? – Yes
Semimajor axis: 2,872,460,000 km
Orbit period: 30,685.4 days
Perihelion: 2,741,300,000 km
Aphelion: 3,003,620,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 6.81 km/s
Orbit inclination: 0.772°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0457
Sidereal rotation period: 17.24 hours
Length of day: 17.24 hours
Axial tilt: 97.77°
Discovery: 13 March 1781
Minimum distance from Earth: 2,581,900,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 3,157,300,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 4.1 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 3.3 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: 5.32

Neptune
Mass: 102.43 x 1024 kg
Volume: 6,254 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 24,622 km
Average diameter: 49,244 km
Mean density: 1.638 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 23.5 km/s
Surface gravity: 11.15 m/s2
Natural satellites: 13
Rings? – Yes
Semimajor axis: 4,495,060,000 km
Orbit period: 60,189 days
Perihelion: 4,444,450,000 km
Aphelion: 4,545,670,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 5.43 km/s
Orbit inclination: 1.769°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0113
Sidereal rotation period: 16.11 hours
Length of day: 16.11 hours
Axial tilt: 28.32°
Discovery: 23 September 1846
Minimum distance from Earth: 4,305,900,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 4,687,300,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 2.4 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 2.2 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: 7.78

We’ve written many articles about the Solar System. Here’s an article about how many moons there are in the Solar System, and here’s an article about the formation of the Solar System.

If you’d like more info on the Solar System, check out NASA’s Planetary Fact Sheet.

We’ve recorded several episodes of Astronomy Cast about the Solar System. Start here, Episode 49: Mercury.

Pluto Fact Sheet

The following Pluto fact sheet is based on NASA’s excellent planetary fact sheets. Pluto is no longer a planet, but a dwarf planet.

Mass: 0.0125 x 1024 kg
Volume: 0.715 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 1,195 km
Average diameter: 2,390 km
Mean density: 1.750 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 1.2 km/s
Surface gravity: 0.58 m/s2
Natural satellites: 3
Rings? – No
Semimajor axis: 5,906,380,000 km
Orbit period: 90,465 days
Perihelion: 4,436,820,000 km
Aphelion: 7,375,930,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 4.72 km/s
Orbit inclination: 17.16°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.2488
Sidereal rotation period: 153.2928 hours
Length of day: 153.2820 hours
Axial tilt: 122.53°
Discovery: 18 February 1930
Minimum distance from Earth: 4,284,700,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 7,528,000,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 0.11 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 0.06 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: 13.65

We’ve written many articles about Pluto for Universe Today. Here’s an article about why Pluto isn’t a planet any more, and here’s an article about the distance to Pluto.

If you’d like more info on Pluto, check out Hubblesite’s News Releases about Pluto, and here’s a link to NASA’s Solar System Exploration Guide to Pluto.

We’ve also recorded an entire episode of Astronomy Cast just about Pluto. Listen here, Episode 64: Pluto.

Neptune Fact Sheet

[/caption]
The following Neptune fact sheet is based on NASA’s excellent planetary fact sheets. Neptune is the 8th planet from the Sun, and it requires a telescope to be able to see it.

Mass: 102.43 x 1024 kg
Volume: 6,254 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 24,622 km
Average diameter: 49,244 km
Mean density: 1.638 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 23.5 km/s
Surface gravity: 11.15 m/s2
Natural satellites: 13
Rings? – Yes
Semimajor axis: 4,495,060,000 km
Orbit period: 60,189 days
Perihelion: 4,444,450,000 km
Aphelion: 4,545,670,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 5.43 km/s
Orbit inclination: 1.769°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0113
Sidereal rotation period: 16.11 hours
Length of day: 16.11 hours
Axial tilt: 28.32°
Discovery: 23 September 1846
Minimum distance from Earth: 4,305,900,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 4,687,300,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 2.4 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 2.2 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: 7.78

We’ve written many articles about Neptune for Universe Today. Here’s an article about the color of Neptune, and here’s an article about the atmosphere of Neptune.

If you’d like more info on Neptune, check out Hubblesite’s News Releases about Neptune, and here’s a link to NASA’s Solar System Exploration Guide to Neptune.

We’ve also recorded an entire episode of Astronomy Cast just about Neptune. Listen here, Episode 63: Neptune.

Uranus Fact Sheet

[/caption]
The following Uranus fact sheet is based on NASA’s excellent planetary fact sheets. Uranus is the 7th planet from the Sun, and it requires a telescope to be able to see it.

Mass: 86.832 x 1024 kg
Volume: 6,833 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 25,362 km
Average diameter: 50,724 km
Mean density: 1.270 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 21.3 km/s
Surface gravity: 8.87 m/s2
Natural satellites: 27
Rings? – Yes
Semimajor axis: 2,872,460,000 km
Orbit period: 30,685.4 days
Perihelion: 2,741,300,000 km
Aphelion: 3,003,620,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 6.81 km/s
Orbit inclination: 0.772°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0457
Sidereal rotation period: 17.24 hours
Length of day: 17.24 hours
Axial tilt: 97.77°
Discovery: 13 March 1781
Minimum distance from Earth: 2,581,900,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 3,157,300,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 4.1 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 3.3 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: 5.32

We’ve written many articles about Uranus for Universe Today. Here’s an article about the atmosphere of Uranus, and here’s an article about a blue ring around Uranus.

If you’d like more info on Uranus, check out Hubblesite’s News Releases about Uranus. And here’s a link to the NASA’s Solar System Exploration Guide to Uranus.

We’ve also recorded an entire episode of Astronomy Cast just about Uranus. Listen here, Episode 62: Uranus.

Saturn Fact Sheet

[/caption]
The following Saturn fact sheet is based on NASA’s excellent planetary fact sheets. Saturn is the 6th planet from the Sun, and the second largest planet in the Solar System.

Mass: 568.46 x 1024 kg
Volume: 82,713 x 1010 km3
Average radius: 58,232 km
Average diameter: 116,464 km
Mean density: 0.687 g/cm3
Escape velocity: 35.5 km/s
Surface gravity: 10.44 m/s2
Natural satellites: 60
Rings? – Yes
Semimajor axis: 1,433,530,000 km
Orbit period: 10,759.22 days
Perihelion: 1,352,550,000 km
Aphelion: 1,514,500,000 km
Mean orbital velocity: 9.69 km/s
Orbit inclination: 2.485°
Orbit eccentricity: 0.0565
Sidereal rotation period: 10.656 hours
Length of day: 10.656 hours
Axial tilt: 26.73°
Discovery: Known since prehistoric times
Minimum distance from Earth: 1,195,500,000 km
Maximum distance from Earth: 1,658,500,000 km
Maximum apparent diameter from Earth: 20.1 arc seconds
Minimum apparent diameter from Earth: 14.5 arc seconds
Maximum visual magnitude: 0.43

We’ve written many articles about Saturn for Universe Today. Here’s an article about the rotation of Saturn, and here’s an article about the atmosphere of Saturn.

If you’d like more info on Saturn, check out Hubblesite’s News Releases about Saturn. And here’s a link to the homepage of NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, which is orbiting Saturn.

We’ve also recorded an entire episode of Astronomy Cast just about Saturn. Listen here, Episode 59: Saturn.