How Do We Settle on Mars?

The idea of colonizing Mars has been explored at length, in fiction and as a real possibility. But what are the challenges and benefits of making Mars a “backup location” for humanity?

Why Don't We See Robotic Civilizations Rapidly Expanding Across the Universe?

In 1950, while sitting down to lunch with colleagues at the Los Alamos Laboratory, famed physicist and nuclear scientist Enrico Fermi asked his famous question: “Where is Everybody?” In short, Fermi was addressing the all-important question that has plagued human minds since they first realized planet Earth was merely a speck in an infinite Universe. …

More JWST Observations are Finding Fewer Early Massive Galaxies

Astronomers using JWST were surprised to find mature-looking galaxies in the early Universe; they challenged existing models of cosmology. Astronomers wanted to see if these were ubiquitous, so they examined 19 galaxies in a different part of the sky. They measured high-redshift galaxies but did not find the same unusual mass distribution. This led them to suggest that those initial discoveries were outliers and not indicative of the early Universe.