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Large Quantities of Methane Being Replenished on Mars

This image shows concentrations of Methane discovered on Mars. Credit: NASA

This image shows concentrations of Methane discovered on Mars. Credit: NASA

Methane has been measured in large quantities in Mars atmosphere over several seasons, meaning Mars is active, either geologically or biologically. “We found methane,” said Dr. Geronimo Villanueva from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, one member of a team of scientists reporting on their research at a press conference today at NASA Headquarters. “We can measure not only the methane, but where it is coming from and when it is being released.” This is the first definitive detection of methane on Mars that includes maps identifying areas of active release. “Mars is active,” said Michael Meyers, lead NASA scientist for the Mars Program, “but we don’t know if it’s because of biology or geology or both.”

The methane on Mars was first detected in 1999, again in 2001 and 2003, which was widely reported, but not much was known about the origin or amount of the gas on Mars.

The research team found methane in the atmosphere of Mars by carefully observing the planet over several Mars years, and during all the Martian seasons with NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility, run by the University of Hawaii, and the W. M. Keck telescope, both at Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

Measurements were made using spectroscopy by which light is split into its individual wavelengths, and then the “fingerprint” of individual molecules can be identified.

From Earth the aperture of the spectrometer is placed along the north-south direction of the planet, and during observations, the instrument can acquire between 30 and 50 individual spectra of Mars for every sixty seconds. Doing this they can build a map of the planet, as the planet rotates under the “slit” or aperture of the spectrometer.
In this illustration, subsurface water, carbon dioxide and the planet's internal heat combine to release methane. Although we don’t have evidence on Mars of active volcanoes today, ancient methane trapped in ice "cages" might now be released. Credit: NASA/Susan Twardy
The origin of methane could either be geologic where water reacts with hot rock and produces methane gas which escapes through pores in the planet’s surface in a process called serpentinization. Or it could be evidence of biology under the surface, where the methane generated by microbes could accumulate and then escape through the rocks.

Three regions of active release of methane were found and were seen over areas that show evidence of ancient ground ice or flowing water. The plumes of methane appeared over northern hemisphere regions such as east of Arabia Terra, the Nili Fossae region, and the south-east quadrant of Syrtis Major, an ancient volcano 1,200 kilometers (about 745 miles) across.

“We observed and mapped multiple plumes of methane on Mars, one of which released about 19,000 metric tons of methane,” said Villanueva. “The plumes were emitted during the warmer seasons — spring and summer — perhaps because the permafrost blocking cracks and fissures vaporized, allowing methane to seep into the Martian air. Curiously, some plumes had water vapor while others did not,” said Villanueva. The rate of release is about 1 pound per second or .6 kg per second.

“Methane is quickly destroyed in the Martian atmosphere in a variety of ways, so our discovery of substantial plumes of methane in the northern hemisphere of Mars in 2003 indicates some ongoing process is releasing the gas,” said Dr. Michael Mumma of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. “At northern mid-summer, methane is released at a rate comparable to that of the massive hydrocarbon seep at Coal Oil Point in Santa Barbara, Calif.”

Another team member, Lisa Pratt, professor of geological sciences, Indiana University in
Bloomington, elaborated on whether the process creating the methane could be geological or biological. “If there is an “A” line of evidence that makes me think we need to seriously consider biology, it’s the processes in the subsurface that would allow for methane generation that seems slightly more plausible for biology than geochemistry,” she said. “Serpentinization is a simple water/rock reaction and is a process we see only in a few special places on Earth, usually associated with major fracturing and faulting that allows mantle like materials to be exposed to sea water and groundwater. That’s a process that ‘plugs up the plumbing’ and isolates the reactive site, and we don’t see a lot of evidence for major active, deep faulting and uplift that would bring these reactive materials into contact with water.”

While the team reported on results from observations in 2003 and 2006, they said they were not at liberty to discuss findings from subsequent observations, as the work to decipher the findings is still being done. But they hinted that relatively soon, more information would be available. They are also developing a strategy for further studies with ground-based telescopes, current spacecraft orbiting Mars, and future spacecraft such as the Mar Science Laboratory, as well as re-looking at data already obtained to see if more clues can be found as to the origin of the methane on Mars.

Sources: NASA press conference, NASA


Nancy Atkinson is currently Universe Today's Contributing Editor. Previously she served as UT's Senior Editor and lead writer, and has worked with Astronomy Cast and 365 Days of Astronomy. Nancy is also a NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassador.

Comments on this entry are closed.

  • icebiker January 16, 2009, 2:49 PM

    I was under the impression that because mars has no magnetic field, we can assume that there is no molten core. If there is no molten core, than there is no mechanism for plate tectonics. No plate tectonics means no means for methane to escape. Therefore “life”???

  • DietMilk January 16, 2009, 3:49 PM
  • Frank Glover January 16, 2009, 10:11 PM

    “No plate tectonics means no means for methane to escape…”

    I’m not sure that that step in your logic is necessarily correct.

  • Sid January 17, 2009, 4:47 AM

    “No plate tectonics means no means for methane to escape…”

    Not true – underground ice melt in the wamer months is a seasonal way to provide both an escape route for the methane, and an essential raw material (water) for serpentinization to occour.

    It would be lovely if, one day, we discover acres of underground mars moss, blossoming in the mars summer – awoken by the seasonal melt water.

    But I think the methane probably has a geological source ;-(

  • gudenboink January 17, 2009, 1:07 PM

    I’m a little irritated that they knew about the methane before they launched the twin rovers and then sent the rovers where they did.

    The holy grail is to find life – especially close to home. All the talk in 2003 was about Titan. They could’ve sent the rovers to a better spot..

    But it is still the coolest discovery yet. Now lets hope Ho’bama doesn’t screw with the NASA plan to get to Mars…………..

  • dollhopf January 17, 2009, 7:59 AM

    What is the origin of methan on Titan?

  • Derek January 17, 2009, 10:19 AM

    “.dollhopf Says:
    January 17th, 2009 at 7:59 am

    What is the origin of methan on Titan?”


  • dollhopf January 17, 2009, 2:36 PM

    Dollhopf: What is the origin of methan on Titan?

    Derek: cryovolcanoes.

    Dollhopf: That does not answer the question. Cryovolcanoes are only erupting it. But it must be there before. So again, what might be the origin of methan on Titan? Or maybe one has to ask how it did get there?

  • Arik Rice January 18, 2009, 12:40 PM

    I think I read once, before methane was discovered, that IF methane were discovered on Mars, it would provide a strong piece of evidence in favor of life.

    Doesn’t mean that it is, of course, but it’s just interesting.

  • dollhopf January 19, 2009, 2:53 AM

    Dear Mr. Rice,

    natural gas on earth is basically methan. It basically originates from the same processes which generated oil. And thus, even if methan on Mars (or Titan) escapes from the subsurface through cryovolcanoes (as Derek explained), it would still be the result of organic decomposition. And hence, it would be the product of ancient life on Mars.

    What is wrong on this argument?

  • Wooden January 19, 2009, 4:58 PM

    Decomposing former surface biomass buried beneath tons of volcanic debris, self heating remnant decomposition cooking down like primordial oil and shale deposits did on earth. Approximately 9,500 B.C. it was covered and the plant organisms perished.

  • Extrasolar Flapjacks January 19, 2009, 2:01 PM

    What percentage of methane produced on Earth is not from organic compounds?

  • tomr January 19, 2009, 10:29 PM


    Methane is unstable on mars, I believe largely because it’s broken down by ultraviolet light. Titan is much further from the sun and has a much thicker atmosphere, so methane is stable there. Methane is also much colder, which may make a difference. The presence of water vapor also helps break methane down, but I don’t know if the amount of water is Mars’ atmosphere is enough to make a difference; there’s no water in the air on Titan.

    Methane is a simple chemical, and was created when planets formed. Because methane on the earth and mars is broken down, you’ll only see methane now if something’s producing it. On the other hand, on Titan, the primordial methane is still there in circulation.

  • tomr January 19, 2009, 10:29 PM

    Sorry, should have said “Titan is much colder, which…”

  • Michael Murray January 21, 2009, 4:04 AM

    “Titan is much colder…” Methane is almost as simple structurally as water. Titan’s elemental composition and temperature profile favors the formation and accumulation of molecules that would otherwise vaporize and dissipate (or simply not form due to preferential bonding with other elements) on Earth or Mars. Re: The temperature thing… if H2O formed on Titan, it would probably never make it to the surface. However, Methane (with a melting point about 150 degrees Celsius below water) could more readily accumulate and ultimately break free of the solid surface of the planet. Mars methane and Titan methane are two very different beasts.