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Ceres and Vesta Converge in Virgo, Watch it Happen With Just Binoculars

This map shows the paths of Ceres and Vesta in Virgo through late June at five-day intervals. Vesta is currently magnitude +5.8 and Ceres 7.0. Both are easily visible in binoculars from suburban and rural skies. A wide view map below will help you navigate from nearby bright Mars to Zeta Virginis. From Zeta, star hop to either asteroid. Stars are shown to about magnitude +8.5. Click to enlarge. Created with Chris Marriott's SkyMap software

This map shows the paths of Ceres and Vesta in Virgo through late June at five-day intervals. Vesta is currently magnitude +5.8 and Ceres at + 7.0. Both are easily visible in binoculars from suburban and rural skies. The wide view map below will help you navigate from nearby Mars to Zeta Virginis. From Zeta, star hop to Vesta. Stars are shown to about magnitude +8.5. Click to enlarge. Created with Chris Marriott’s SkyMap software

Don’t let them pass you by. Right now and continuing through July, the biggest and brightest asteroids will be running on nearly parallel tracks in the constellation Virgo and so close together they’ll easily fit in the same binocular field of view.  The twofer features Ceres (biggest) and Vesta (brightest) which are also the prime targets of NASA’s Dawn Mission. Now en route to a Ceres rendezvous next February, Dawn orbited Vesta from July 2011 to September 2012 and sent back spectacular photos of two vast impact basins, craters stained black by carbon-rich asteroids and parallel troughs that stretch around the 330-mile-wide world like rubber bands.

mosaic synthesizes some of the best views the spacecraft had of the giant asteroid Vesta. Dawn studied Vesta. The towering mountain at the south pole - more than twice the height of Mount Everest - is visible at the bottom of the image. The set of three craters known as the "snowman" can be seen at the top left. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCAL/MPS/DLR/IDA

This mosaic of Vesta synthesizes some of the best views the spacecraft had of the giant asteroid. The towering mountain at the south pole – more than twice the height of Mount Everest – is visible at the bottom of the image. The set of three craters known as the “snowman” can be seen at the top left. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCAL/MPS/DLR/IDA

Astronomers used Dawn’s gravity data to discover Vesta is more like a planet than anyone had supposed. Deep beneath its crust, composed of lighter minerals, lies a denser iron core. Most asteroids were too small to generate enough interior heat through the decay of radioactive elements to melt and “differentiate” into core, mantle and crust like the terrestrial planets. Thanks to our new understanding, you’ll hear Vesta referred to as a ‘baby planet’.

A full 5.3 hour rotation of Vesta using photos taken by Dawn. Credit: NASA

A full 5.3 hour rotation of Vesta using photos taken by Dawn. Credit: NASA

Studies of its crustal rocks showed a match to a clan of basaltic meteorites called howardites, eucrites and diogenites. Many of these formerly volcanic rocks that trace their origin to Vesta are found in numerous private and institutional collections. With a little homework, you can even buy a slice of Vesta on eBay, making for one of the least expensive sample return missions ever undertaken.


Dawn’s Greatest Hits at Vesta – A quick summary of key discoveries accompanied by electric guitar

While Vesta is a rocky body, Ceres shows telltale signs of water and iron-rich clay. Like Vesta, it also appears to have cooked itself into denser core and lighter crust. Because Ceres is less dense than Earth,  astronomers believe water ice may be buried beneath its dusty crust.

Dwarf planet Ceres is located in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Observations by ESA's Herschel space observatory between 2011 and 2013 find that the dwarf planet has a thin water-vapour atmosphere. It is the first unambiguous detection of water vapour around an object in the asteroid belt.  Credit: ESA/ATG medialab

Dwarf planet Ceres (right) is located in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Observations by ESA’s Herschel space observatory between 2011 and 2013 found that the dwarf planet has a thin water-vapor atmosphere. It’s the first unambiguous detection of water vapor around an object in the asteroid belt. Credit: ESA/ATG medialab

Earlier this year, astronomers working with the Herschel Space Telescope announced the discovery of plumes of water vapor blasting from two regions on the dwarf planet’s surface. While Ceres is an asteroid it’s also a member of a select group of dwarf planets, bodies large enough to have crunched themselves into spheres through their own gravity but not big enough to clear the region they orbit of smaller asteroids.

Vesta (left) and Ceres. Vesta was photographed up close by Dawn, while the best views we have to date of Ceres come from the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/ESA

Vesta (left) and Ceres. Vesta was photographed up close by Dawn, while the best views we have to date of Ceres come from the Hubble Space Telescope. Notice the bright white spot which is still a mystery. Credit: NASA/ESA

Ceres and Vesta will be gradually drawing closer in the coming weeks and months until on July 5 only 10 arc minutes (one-third the diameter of a full moon) will separate them. They’ll also be fading, but not so much that binoculars won’t show them throughout this excellent dual apparition. Vesta will only dim to magnitude +7 by July 1, Ceres to 8.4. Come mid-June I’ll return with a detailed map showing how best to see the dynamic duo during their close conjunction.

To find your way to the 4th magnitude stars Zeta and Tau Virginis, which you can use with the detailed map to guide you to Ceres and Vesta, start with brilliant Mars in the southern sky and look about one fist to the left or east to spot Zeta. Stellarium

To find your way to the 4th magnitude stars Zeta and Tau Virginis, which you can use with the detailed map to guide you to Ceres and Vesta, start with brilliant Mars in the southern sky and look about one fist to the left or east to spot Zeta. Map shows the sky around 10 o’clock local time in late April. Stellarium

Sure, both Ceres and Vesta look exactly like stars even in large amateur telescopes, but sampling photons from real asteroids while listening to the sound of frogs on a spring night is my idea of a good time. Maybe yours too. Good luck!

About 

I'm a long-time amateur astronomer and member of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO). My observing passions include everything from auroras to Z Cam stars. Every day the universe offers up something both beautiful and thought-provoking. I also write a daily astronomy blog called Astro Bob.

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  • mewo April 17, 2014, 9:44 PM

    2015 will be a great year for space exploration. Ceres and Pluto!

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