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An “Elemental” Explanation of Dark Matter

28 Jun , 2013

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Video

Atoms, string theory, dark matter, dark energy… there’s an awful lot about the Universe that might make sense on paper (to physicists, anyway) but is extremely difficult to detect and measure, at least with the technology available today. But at the core of science is observation, and what’s been observed of the Universe so far strongly indicates an overwhelming amount of… stuff… that cannot be observed. But just because it can’t be seen doesn’t mean it’s not there; on the contrary, it’s what we can’t see that actually makes up the majority of the Universe.

If this doesn’t make sense, that’s okay — they’re all pretty complex concepts. So in order to help non-scientists (which, like dark energy, most of the population is comprised of) get a better grasp as to what all this “dark” stuff is about, CERN scientist and spokesperson James Gillies has teamed up with TED-Ed animators to visually explain some of the Universe’s darkest secrets. Check it out above (and see more space science lessons from TED-Ed here.)

Because everything’s easier to understand with animation!

Lesson by James Gillies, animation by TED-Ed.

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Planemo
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Planemo
June 28, 2013 10:37 PM

Dark matter and energy we just cannot see. We know they are both there. It is like the air or the paranormal spirit like. How exactly to they work. I wonder how they individually act and react to and why. Both are eery like. If seen we’d solve so many mysteries and theories. Stephen Hawking and others would have a true monumental field day. The implications would be astounding! – IF ONLY – wink

Planemo
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Planemo
June 30, 2013 9:48 PM

Why doesn’t “Universe Today” show the names of the “who” ‘vote-downs”? They do with “vote-ups”. Takes all kinds to make the world go around.

Aqua4U
Member
June 28, 2013 11:07 PM
Good one Jason! Expect a MAJOR outpouring of comments! (Wink-wink ~@; ) Always befuddling and counter intuitive, the ideas behind Dark Matter and Dark Energy are so very controversial. Based of course upon an accumulation of scientifically accepted theorem, these ideas must yet be taken as a ‘best reckoning’ to answer profound astronomical observations. What always bothers me, is that if any of the tenets used by these theories to explain this gravitational conundrum should prove to be wrong or even ‘off’ fractionally, then the whole ‘deck of cards’ comes tumbling down… BUT there is hope! The Large Hadron Collider is currently (Oh no… another pun?) undergoing an upgrade which should allow it to generate even higher energies… Read more »
The Latinist
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The Latinist
June 30, 2013 2:17 PM

What “tenets” are you talking about?

Torbjorn Larsson OM
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Torbjorn Larsson OM
July 1, 2013 11:19 AM

As I mention and link to above, DM & DE are not controversial today and as simple an observation as big bang due to the CMB. There are no “tenets” used in the observational constraints except known physics of hydrogen gas.

If you by the “ideas behind” mean theories that can predict DM & DE, they are still open areas. But it isn’t much of a controversy to have DE as a measure of vacuum energy or DM as the heavy components of remaining particle sectors.

SteveZodiac
Member
SteveZodiac
July 1, 2013 10:11 PM

Without bias I always think of epicycles and how many centuries their model was uncontroversial and based on the unassailable assumption that planets must move in circles.Science improves but the nature of human thought remains the same.

Tony Barry
Member
Tony Barry
June 29, 2013 10:33 AM

Good movie, good animations and very easily followed.

I thought Democritus was the originator of atomic theory. The narrator says it was somebody else (but I could not catch the name).

Regards,
TB

SHREEKANT
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SHREEKANT
June 29, 2013 1:25 PM
DA, DM, WA(White Atom-‘Atom’), WM(White Matter-‘Baryon’)-shows SUPPER-SYMMETRY[obviously-not by symmetrical style of writing]. DE is the key factor in explaining the Basics of Science. Our present concept is based on 4-5% knowledge. 76-75% play a very important role in explaining the science. Is the number of element in Universe are only that- we know? Is F depends only on GMm/R2? Is our solar system formed exactly as we are explaining? Is only gases are displaced when water enter the so called empty bottle? …….. Our “BASICS” are other-ways round. Are we ready to understand the universe from another angle? If yes, ‘The theory of UNIFIED …..’ can change the Science. The 5th Force is the FINAL FORCE that govern… Read more »
Olaf
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Olaf
June 29, 2013 4:09 PM

— Explain About Dooms Day-21.12.12 Situation, —

Doomsday 2012???? Facepalm.

Planemo
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Planemo
June 29, 2013 4:28 PM

There are other possibilities than just a just what is accepted by the science communities. This cosmos is unfathomable to the human mind. We are in the infancy of space exploration and knowledge of it. Period.

forj
Member
forj
June 29, 2013 5:52 PM

Wait… What? Had a really hard time reading / understanding that

The Latinist
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The Latinist
July 1, 2013 4:30 AM

Could you please explain the evidence for a “5th force” and explain in what way it is “final”?

Torbjorn Larsson OM
Member
Torbjorn Larsson OM
July 1, 2013 11:24 AM

Sigh! You can’t make observations out to be “4-5 % knowledge” as they are 100 % knowledge (albeit with some uncertainty – in this case very low, see my response to A4u).

SHREEKANT
Guest
SHREEKANT
July 4, 2013 7:58 PM

Dear all pl. read the link DATED 4TH,JULY’13

http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2013/07/is-an-unknown-force-of-the-universe-acting-on-dark-matter.html

I am not writing much because it is not the right platform. [pl. don’t take anything new as garbage-this is called ‘Mental Blockage’]

Lawrence B. Crowell
Member
Lawrence B. Crowell
June 29, 2013 1:42 PM
Leucippus was the mentor to Democritus, and the origin of atomic theory comes from these two. Since Leucippus was the elder or teacher some credit him with the idea more than Democritus. Dark energy is in a way easy to understand. One can understand the role of dark energy with Newton’s laws. Newton’s law of gravity is that a force F between two masses M and m is proportional to a constant G times Mm divided by the square of the distance between them. F = -GMm/r^2. Here the minus sign indicates the force is attractive. Newton’s second law tells us that F = ma, for a the acceleration of the smaller test mass m. So we have… Read more »
Olaf
Member
Olaf
June 29, 2013 4:01 PM

LC maybe you can explain what “holographic” means, in this explanation?

I think that a lot of readers associate “holographic” with some kind of thing that has some magical properties and only occurring in SF movies..

However this clip brought me back to reality that holographic is something quit simple. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XUy8lELWhJg
There exist another clip of that guy that shows how he creates these holograms but I can’t find it. But it is basically creating curved scratches and it is the point where the sunlight reflects 2 crossing scratches in the right direction of your eye that creates the image. bending the metal sheet means that a different cross section will reflect light towards your eyes.

Lawrence B. Crowell
Member
Lawrence B. Crowell
June 30, 2013 1:05 AM
Holography comes about from a rather elementary observation about relativity. If you Lorentz boost a system to a velocity very close to the speed of light two things appear to happen. The length of the system along the direction of motion contracts to near zero. The other thing that happens is the time rate one observes of that system slows down incredibly. The result is that if there are motions within that system that are much slower than the velocity of the boost direction u << v appears classical due to time dilation and all dynamics along the boost direction or the longitudinal modes vanish. If one looked at a system approaching a black hole it approaches the… Read more »
Planemo
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Planemo
June 30, 2013 6:01 AM

Space time is so unfathomable to the human brain. Our brain can only conform to this space-time realm or dimension. The possibilities are endless. The truth is there.

Deep? That’s an understatement.

Isabel Herron
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Isabel Herron
June 30, 2013 8:53 PM

like Walter explained I’m stunned that a stay at home mom able to earn $5080 in a few weeks on the computer. did you see this web link w­w­w.K­E­P­2.c­o­m

Planemo
Guest
Planemo
June 30, 2013 9:37 PM

You mean, Walter Cronkite from from the 1970-BC? …lol. Well, good for you sweetheart. Hope you make millions! wink. Sounds like a sales pitch to me. I guess I will start selling land on a planet very near Alpha CMo-(Sirius). 5$ an acre? bye bye wink

Planemo
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Planemo
June 30, 2013 11:13 PM

ps- Its all good Isabel wink. I respect your intentions. I was just having a lil’fun with you. I have seen other sites like the one your working with and for.Personally, I would stay way from job(s) you must pay to acquire. wink

Torbjorn Larsson OM
Member
Torbjorn Larsson OM
July 1, 2013 11:55 AM

“Holography” means whole image reconstruction [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holography ], which is analogous to what the idea of a “holographic principle” means. That holography in practice often involves reconstructing 3D images out of 2D image templates may or may not be what the physicists wanted to refer to.

One embodiment of the holographic principle is differential equations, where the know local law (the diff eq) and boundary constraints can reconstruct a solution within a bounded area (the integrated diff eq).

SteveZodiac
Member
SteveZodiac
June 29, 2013 3:35 PM

Molecular Hydrogen is dark and a survey by Heschel suggests the amount in the Galaxy is hugely underestimated so Dark Matter is probably just that.

Torbjorn Larsson OM
Member
Torbjorn Larsson OM
July 1, 2013 11:26 AM

No. It is basic cosmology, and a simple observation, that DM is not baryon matter such as in atoms. See the link in my first comment how we know this, and take the 1 s needed to see it for yourself out of the CMB spectra.

The Latinist
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The Latinist
July 1, 2013 2:10 PM

Thanks for replying to this; I had wanted to do so myself, but was unsure I could be comprehensive enough. One question, though: don’t we have additional evidence for the non-baryonic nature of DM from observations that set a very low upper limit to its electromagnetic cross section?

SteveZodiac
Member
SteveZodiac
July 1, 2013 10:00 PM

I promise you I will, and continue to do so, but it will take more than 1s

Lawrence B. Crowell
Member
Lawrence B. Crowell
June 30, 2013 2:09 AM
As I indicated I would discuss dark matter from an elementary physics perspective. This is based on just Newton’s law and Gauss’ integral laws. Newton’s law of gravity is that a force F between two masses M and m is proportional to a constant G times Mm divided by the square of the distance between them. F = -GMm/r^2. Here the minus sign indicates the force is attractive. Newton’s second law tells us that F = ma, for a the acceleration of the smaller test mass m. So we have a = -GM/r^2. A rule is that potential energy ? gives a force F = -??, or that this gradient is just a derivative with respect to r,… Read more »
TractorEngineer
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TractorEngineer
June 30, 2013 4:54 PM

Dark matter is a lame attempt by cosmologists to explain how they don’t know everything.

Torbjorn Larsson OM
Member
Torbjorn Larsson OM
July 1, 2013 11:35 AM

Your comment is a lame attempt to show us you know something.

But the attempt fails, see my 1st comment and how DM is an observation out of the cosmic microwave background, And a very simple observation, such that you can do it yourself.

Richard Kirk
Member
Richard Kirk
June 30, 2013 7:30 PM
There are so many New-Age spiritualist arguments, claiming that the arrogant yet feeble astrophysicists are not capable of comprehending the true nature of the universe, and it is a waste of time trying to explain it to them. Please take this as a follow-up comment to any and all… Okay, we don’t know what ‘dark matter is’ but it was known since the 1930’s that something was needed to balance galaxies, and we have recently been able to measure the different densities of dark matter in different parts of the universe. This is important, because if dark matter was something that existed everywhere with equal density, then it might be some cosmological constant, rather than a distribution of… Read more »
Torbjorn Larsson OM
Member
Torbjorn Larsson OM
July 1, 2013 11:14 AM

The video messed up a little in not mentioning that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) gives the best evidence for _all_of the dark universe, both dark energy and dark matter. In fact, it makes it as simple an observation as it makes big bang an observation.

Here is an article that describes how simple it is to make those observations out of the CMB: http://galileospendulum.org/2012/02/17/the-genome-of-the-universe/ .

William928
Member
William928
July 1, 2013 10:13 PM

You’re not the only one……..sigh!

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