I often ponder whether the Cassini spacecraft is a better scientist or artist. I found three recent images from Cassini that definitely give the nod to artist, but surely there’s lots of great science here as well. In this image, Saturn casts its shadow on the rings, but it also shows how the rings reflect sunlight onto the dark side of the planet. Here Saturn appears dimly illuminated by this ringshine. This view looks toward the southern, unilluminated side of the rings from about 10 degrees below the ringplane, and was taken on Jan. 2, 2010 when Cassini was about 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) from Saturn. Below: beautiful moons.
While this image is stunningly gorgeous, perhaps the most amazing thing is that it was snapped by Cassini’s cameras just yesterday (March 15, 2010) and beamed back to Earth today! This is a raw, uncalibrated image and the only details posted about it is that the camera was pointing toward Tethys at approximately 2,410,546 kilometers away. Can anyone guess what the second moon is?
Another beauty, Dione and Titan make a smiling pair of crescent moons. This image was taken on March 12, 2010 and received on Earth March 13, 2010. The camera was pointing toward Dione at approximately 2,211,699 kilometers away.
Are Saturn’s rings spinning at ludicrous speeds? It appears they have gone plaid! The Cassini spacecraft has actually spied two types of waves in Saturn’s A ring: a spiral density wave on the left of the image and a more pronounced spiral bending wave near the middle. And the “plaid” look comes from the slight pixelation visible near the brightest and darkest lines, which the Cassini team says is an unavoidable result of the size of the camera’s sensor and of image processing.
And if you don’t get the “plaid” reference, go watch Spaceballs.
The image was taken in visible green light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Jan. 11, 2010 at a distance of approximately 279,000 kilometers (173,000 miles) from Saturn.
The mysterious spokes that sometimes appear in Saturn’s largest ring, the B ring, have been unexplained. But new measurements from Cassini’s Visual Infrared Mapping spectrometer (VIMS) suggests the radial spokes that sometimes form across the ring are entirely composed of water ice. The existence of the spokes were unexpected and were first observed when the Voyager spacecraft flew by Saturn in 1980. When Cassini arrived at Saturn in 2004, the spokes were not visible, but later appeared in 2005; the VIMS instrument was not able to observe the spokes until 2008. Even with this new information, the spokes are still mysterious, as they appear to be a seasonal phenomenon and can become visible and then fade within a few hours. The process that creates and dissipates the spokes is unknown.
Early hypotheses on the spokes speculated that gravitational forces and/or electrostatic repulsion between ring particles played a role in creating the spokes. One clue was that the spokes are more commonly observed when Saturn’s rings are more nearly edge on to the Sun. Other scientists had suggested ice, but believed the spokes were composed mainly of smaller ice grains. However, the new data show a large portion of the grains are larger than expected; a micrometer or more in radius.
E. D’Aversa and his team from the Institute for Interplanetary Space Physics in Rome, Italy used the VIMS instrument on Cassini to observe the infrared spectrum emitted by these spokes on July 9, 2008. These were the first measurements of the complete reflectance spectrum of the spokes in a wide spectral range (0.35–0.51 ?m). The team said that radiative transfer modeling supports a pure water ice composition for the spoke’s grains, but their size distribution is found to be wider than previously thought.
The preliminary results showed a modal value of about 1.90 ?m (reff = 3.5 ?m, veff = 0.3) and a number density of about 0.01–0.1 grains/cm3. The researchers say the unexpected abundance of micron-sized grains in the spokes may have implications for the formation models since the energy requirement increases by at least one order of magnitude. Future observations could help constrain the size as well as shed more light on the how the spokes form, evolve and change.
This wonderful video was posted by Jennifer Ouellette on Discovery News, and I just had to share it. The sounds are actual recordings picked up by the Cassini spacecraft. I have heard the eerie audio before, but never had previously seen it paired up with moving images from the mission. The radio emissions, called Saturn kilometric radiation, are generated along with Saturn’s auroras, or northern and southern lights. Cassini’s Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument takes high-resolution measurements that allow scientists to convert the radio waves into audio recordings by shifting the frequencies down into the audio frequency range. Continue reading “The Sound of Saturn’s Rings”
Saturn is sometimes called the ”Jewel of the Solar System” because its ring system looks like a crown. The rings are well known, but often the question ”what are Saturn’s rings made of” arises. Those rings are made up of dust, rock, and ice accumulated from passing comets, meteorite impacts on Saturn’s moons, and the planet’s gravity pulling material from the moons. Some of the material in the ring system are as small as grains of sand, others are larger than tall buildings, while a few are up to a kilometer across. Deepening the mystery about the moons is the fact that each ring orbits at a different speed around the planet.
Saturn is not the only planet with a ring system. All of the gas giants have rings, in fact. Saturn’s rings stand out because they are the largest and most vivid. The rings have a thickness of up to one kilometer and they span up to 482,000 km from the center of the planet.
The rings are named in alphabetical order according to when they were discovered. That makes it a little confusing when listing them in order from the planet. Below is a list of the main rings and gaps between them along with distances from the center of the planet and their widths.
The D ring is closest to the planet. It is at a distance of 66,970 – 74,490 km and has a width of 7,500 km.
C ring is at a distance of 74,490 – 91,980 km and has a width of 17,500 km.
Columbo Gap is at a distance of 77,800 km and has a width of 100 km.
Maxwell Gap is at a distance of 87,500 km and has a width of 270 km.
Bond Gap is at a distance of 88,690 – 88,720 km and has a width of 30 km.
Dawes Gap is at a distance of 90,200 – 90,220 km and has a width 20 km.
B ring is at a distance of 91,980 – 117,580 km with a width: 25,500 km.
The Cassini Division sits at a distance of 117,500 – 122,050 km and has a width of 4,700 km.
Huygens gap starts at 117,680 km and has a width of 285 km – 440 km.
The Herschel Gap is at a distance of 118,183 – 118,285 km with a width of 102 km.
Russell Gap is at a distance of 118,597 – 118,630 km and has a width of 33 km.
Jeffreys Gap sits at a distance of 118,931 – 118,969 km with a width of 38 km.
Kuiper Gap ranges from 119,403 -119,406 km giving it a width of 3 km.
Leplace Gap is at a distance of 119,848 – 120,086 km and a width of 238 km.
Bessel Gap is at 120,305 – 120,318 km with a width of 10 km.
Barnard Gap is at a distance of 120,305 – 120,318 km giving it a width of 3 km.
A ring is at a distance of 122,050 – 136,770 km with a width of 14,600 km.
Encke Gap sits between 133,570-133,895 km for a width of 325 km.
Keeler Gap is at a distance of 136,530-136,565 km with a width of 35 km.
The Roche Division is at 136,770 – 139,380 km for a width 2600 km.
F ring is begins at 140,224 km, but debate remains as to whether it is 30 or 500 km in width.
G ring is between 166,000 – 174,000 km and has a width of 8,000 km.
Finally, we get to the E ring. It is between 180,000 – 480,000 km giving it a width of 300,000 km.
As you can see, a great deal of observation has been dedicated to understanding and defining Saturn’s rings. Hopefully, having the answer to ”what are Saturn’s rings made of” will inspire you to look more deeply into the topic.
Cassini has been orbiting around Saturn for almost four years, and amazingly, the spacecraft keeps discovering new and unexpected features about this world and its system of rings and moons. Recently, in two of Saturn’s rings, Cassini found orderly lines of densely grouped, boulder-size icy particles that extend outward across the rings like ripples from a rock dropped in a calm pond. Surprisingly, the distances between these ring particles stay relatively equal even though their velocities may change. This type of pattern is completely new, as normally, the distances between particles change with their velocity.
The pattern was detected when Cassini sent out three signals toward Earth. The signals crossed Saturn’s rings, and the frequencies were scattered from the passing ring particles. Once the signals were captured by Earth-based antennas of NASA’s Deep Space Network, Cassini scientists saw a regular pattern in the received signal frequencies.
“This particular feature is the smallest and most detailed of anything seen in Saturn’s rings so far,” said Cassini radio science team member Essam Marouf. “In the chaotic environment of the rings, to find such regularity in the most cramped areas is nothing short of amazing.” The regular structure can only be found in locations where particles are densely packed together, such as the B ring and the innermost part of the A ring. The signals were sent to capture a complete view of the rings.
The unexpected pattern within Saturn’s rings may give scientists some new ideas of what to expect from other similar planets and solar systems.
Scientists call this pattern of particles “enormously extended natural diffraction grating.” A diffraction grating has parallel lines like a picket fence; when light hits this fence, it separates according to wavelength, from ultraviolet to infrared light.
“The signals showed that the particle groups were arranged in an unexpectedly regular formation that had rhythm within the rings of Saturn,'” said Marouf. “Each particle is in its own orbit, and sometimes they collide and move apart as their velocities change. As a result, you have particles bunched together into dense groups that extend across the ring in harmony with each other.”