Hovering about the galactic plane and locked in the embrace of a spiral galaxy’s arms, open star clusters usually contain up to a few hundred members and generally span around thirty light years across. Most are young, up to a few tens of millions of years old – with a few rare exceptions as old as a few billion years. We understand that over time the members of a galactic cluster slowly drift apart to form loose associations. But what we don’t understand is exactly how their stars formed.
“The net effect of this is that their stars eventually become redistributed throughout the Galaxy,” said Nathan Leigh, a PhD student at McMaster University and lead author for a study being presented this week at the CASCA 2011 meeting in Ontario, Canada. “This is how we think most of the stars in the Milky Way came to be found in their currently observed locations.”
One of the reasons we’re not able to probe deeply into the construction and evolution of galactic clusters is because they are typically hidden by a dense veil of gas and dust. Beautiful to look at… But nearly impossible to cut through in visible light. This means we can’t directly observe the process of starbirth. To help understand this process, astronomers have combined their observations of star clusters so old they date back to the beginning of the Universe itself . And, thanks to modern computing, they are also able to generate state-of-the-art simulations for stellar evolution.
“Unfortunately, most star clusters take so long to dissolve that we cannot actually see it happening. But we now understand how this process occurs, and we can look for its signatures by examining the current appearances of clusters,” said Nathan Leigh. “We have gone about this by matching up the clusters we make with our simulations to the ones we actually observe. This tells us about the conditions at the time of their formation.”
These simulations have given Leigh and collaborators the stimulus they needed to re-trace the histories of real star clusters, giving us new clues about formation. To complete their studies, they relied upon highly sophisticated observations recently taken with the Hubble Space Telescope.
“Remarkably, we are finding that all star clusters more or less share a common history, extending all the way back to their births,” said Leigh. “This came as a big surprise to us since it suggests that the problem could be much simpler than we originally thought. Our understanding of not only how stars form, but also the history of our Galaxy, just took a much bigger step forward than we were expecting.”
In 1867, astronomers using the 40 cm Foucault telescope at the Paris Observatory, discovered three stars in the constellation Cygnus (now designated HD191765, HD192103 and HD192641), that displayed broad emission bands on an otherwise continuous spectrum. The astronomers’ names were Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet, and thus this category of stars became named Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars. Now using the Canadian MOST microsatellite, a team of researchers from the Universite de Montreal and the Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Quebec have made a stunning observation. They probed into the depth of the atmospheric eclipses in the Wolf-Rayet star, CV Serpentis, and observed a never before seen change of mass-loss rate.
Thanks to the service of MOST – Canada’s first space telescope and its high precision photometry – the team has observed significant changes in the depth of the atmospheric eclipses in the 30-day binary WR+O system. The equipment is aboard a suitcase-sized microsatellite (65 x 65 x 30 cm) which was launched in 2003 from a former ICBM in northern Russia. It is on a low-Earth polar orbit and has long outlived its original estimated life expectancy, offering Canadian astronomers almost eight years (and still counting) of ultra-high quality space-based data. Now this data gives us a huge insight into the heart of Wolf-Rayet stars.
Intrinsically luminous, WR stars can be massive or mid-sized, but the most interesting stage is arguably the last 10% in the lifetime of the star, when hydrogen fuel is used up and the star survives by much hotter He-burning. Towards the end of this phase, the copious supply of carbon atoms head for the stellar surface and are ejected in the form of stellar winds. WR stars in this stage are known as WC stars… and their production of carbon dust is one of the greatest mysteries of the Cosmos. These amorphous dust grains range in size from a few to millions of atoms and astronomers hypothesize their formation may requires high pressure and less than high temperatures.
“One key case is undoubtedly the sporadic dust-producing WC star in CV Ser. MOST was recently used to monitor CV Ser twice (2009 and 2010), revealing remarkable changes in the depths of the atmospheric eclipse that occurs every time the hot companion’s light is absorbed as it passes through the inner dense WC wind.” says the researchers. “The remarkable, unprecedented 70% change in the WC mass-loss rate might be connected to dust formation.”
And all thanks to the MOST tiny little satellite imaginable…
Original Story Source: AstroNews and excerpt from Wikipedia.
They came into existence violently… Born at the death of a massive star. They are composed almost entirely of neutrons, barren of electrical charge and with a slightly larger mass than protons. They are quantum degenerates with an average density typically more than one billion tons per teaspoonful – a state which can never be created here on Earth. And they are absolutely perfect for study of how matter and exotic particles behave under extreme conditions. We welcome the extreme neutron star…
In 1934 Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky proposed the existence of the neutron star, only a year after the discovery of the neutron by Sir James Chadwick. But it took another 30 years before the first neutron star was actually observed. Up until now, neutron stars have had their mass accurately measured to about 1.4 times that of Sol. Now a group of astronomers using the Green Bank Radio Telescope found a neutron star that has a mass of nearly twice that of the Sun. How can they make estimates so precise? Because the extreme neutron star in question is actually a pulsar – PSR J1614-2230. With heartbeat-like precision, PSR J1614-2230 sends out a radio signal each time it spins on its axis at 317 times per second.
According to the team; “What makes this discovery so remarkable is that the existence of a very massive neutron star allows astrophysicists to rule out a wide variety of theoretical models that claim that the neutron star could be composed of exotic subatomic particles such as hyperons or condensates of kaons.”
The presence of this extreme star poses new questions about its origin… and its nearby white dwarf companion. Did it become so extreme from pulling material from its binary neighbor – or did it simply become that way through natural causes? According to Professor Lorne Nelson (Bishop’s University) and his colleagues at MIT, Oxford, and UCSB, the neutron star was likely spun up to become a fast-rotating (millisecond) pulsar as a result of the neutron star having cannibalized its stellar companion many millions of years ago, leaving behind a dead core composed mostly of carbon and oxygen. According to Nelson, “Although it is common to find a high fraction of stars in binary systems, it is rare for them to be close enough so that one star can strip off mass from its companion star. But when this happens, it is spectacular.”
Through the use of theoretical models, the team hopes to gain insight as to how binary systems evolve over the entire lifetime of the Universe. With today’s extreme super-computing powers, Nelson and his team members were able to calculate the evolution of more than 40,000 plausible starting cases for the binary and determine which ones were relevant. As they describe at this week’s CASCA meeting in Ontario, Canada, they found many instances where the neutron star could evolve higher in mass at the expense of its companion, but as Nelson says, “It isn’t easy for Nature to make such high-mass neutron stars, and this probably explains why they are so rare.”
Hanging onto the outskirts of our Milky Way galaxy like cockle burs on a shaggy dog’s coat, globular clusters contain over hundreds of thousands of stars. Estimated to be up to ten billion years old, these spherical stellar seed pods are gravitationally bound together and tend to be more dense towards their cores. We’ve long known all the stars contained within a globular cluster to be about the same age and the individual members most likely formed at the same time as the parent galaxy – but what we weren’t expecting was change.
“We thought we understood these clusters very well”, says Dr. Alison Sills, Associate Professor of Physics & Astronomy. She is presenting new findings at this week’s CASCA 2011 meeting in Ontario, Canada. “We taught our students that all the stars in these clusters were formed at the same time, from one giant cloud of gas. And since that time, the individual stars may have evolved and died, but no new stars were born in the cluster.”
In 1953, astronomer Allan Sandage was performing photometry of the stars in the globular cluster M3 when he made an incredible discovery – blue stragglers. No, it’s not a down-his-luck musician waiting for a coin in his instrument case… but a main sequence star more luminous and more blue than stars at the main sequence turn-off point for the cluster. They shouldn’t belong where they are, but with masses two to three times that of the rest of the main sequence cluster stars, blue stragglers seem to be exceptions to the rule. Maybe they are a product of interaction… grappling together… pulling material from one another… and eventually merging.
“Astronomers expect that the stars get too close to each other because of the complicated dance that stars perform in these dense clusters, where thousands of stars are packed into a relatively small space, and each star is moving through this cluster under the influence of the gravity of all the other stars. Somewhat like a traffic system with no stop lights, there are a lot of close encounters and collisions,” explains Sills.
By taking a closer look at globular clusters, the Hubble Space Telescope has given us evidence for two generations of star formation. The first is our accepted rule, but the second generation isn’t like anything else found in our Galaxy. Instead of being created from an earlier generation of expended stars, the second generation in globular clusters appears to have formed from material sloughed off by the first generation of stars. An enigma? You bet.
“Studying the normal stars in clusters was instrumental in allowing astronomers to figure out how stars lived and died”, says Dr. Sills, “but now we can look even further back, to when they were born, by using the oddballs. It pays off to pay attention to the unusual individuals in any population. You never know what they’ll be able to tell you.”
At the CASCA conference, Dr. Sills is presenting her work – a link between these two unusual forms of globular clusters. Blue stragglers and the second generation of stars would appear to have identical properties, including where they are concentrated in the cluster, and that both are.. well.. a little more “blue” than we would expect. She is investigating how the close encounters and collisions could affect the formation of this strange second generation and link the two phenomena we see in these complicated systems.
Even though some of the first stars in the early universe were massive, they probably lived fast and furious lives, as they likely rotated much faster than their present-day counterparts. A new study on stellar evolution looked at a 12-billion-year-old star cluster and found high levels of metal in the stars – a chemical signature that suggests that the first stars were fast spinners.
“We think that the first generations of massive stars were very fast rotators – that’s why we called them spinstars,” said Cristina Chiappini of the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam in Germany, who led the team of astronomers.
These first generation stars died out long ago, and our telescopes can’t look back in time far enough to actually see them, but astronomers can get a glimpse of what they were like by looking at the chemical makeup of later stars. The first stars’ chemical imprints are like fossil records that can be found in the oldest stars we can study.
The general understanding of the early universe is that soon after the Big Bang, the Universe was made of essentially just hydrogen and helium. The chemical enrichment of the Universe with other elements had to wait around 300 million years until the fireworks started with the death of the first generations of massive stars, putting new chemical elements into the primordial gas, which later were incorporated in the next generations of stars.
Using data from ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), the astronomers reanalyzed spectra of a group of very old stars in the Galactic Bulge. These stars are so old that only very massive, short-living stars with masses larger than around ten times the mass of our Sun should have had time to die and to pollute the gas from which these fossil records then formed. As expected, the chemical composition of the observed stars showed elements typical for enrichment by massive stars. However, the new analysis unexpectedly also revealed elements usually thought to be produced only by stars of smaller masses. Fast-rotating massive stars on the other hand would succeed in manufacturing these elements themselves.
“Alternative scenarios cannot yet be discarded – but – we show that if the first generations of massive stars were spinstars, this would offer a very elegant explanation to this puzzle!” said Chiappini.
A star that spins more rapidly can live longer and suffer different fates than slow-spinning ones. Fast rotation also affects other properties of a star, such as its colour, and its luminosity. Spinstars would therefore also have strongly influenced the properties and appearance of the first galaxies which were formed in the Universe. The existence of spinstars is now also supported by recent hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of the first stars of the universe by an independent research group.
Chiappini and her team are currently working on extending the stellar simulations in order to further test their findings. Their work is published in a Nature article on April 28, 2011.
Much like any living being, stars go through a natural cycle. This begins with birth, extends through a lifespan characterized by change and growth, and ends in death. Of course, we’re talking about stars here, and the way they’re born, live and die is completely different from any life form we are familiar with.
For one, the timescales are entirely different, lasting on the order of billions of years. Also, the changes they go through during their lifespan are entirely different too. And when they die, the consequences are, shall we say, much more visible? Let’s take a look at the life cycle of stars.
Stars start out as vast clouds of cold molecular gas. The gas cloud could be floating in a galaxy for millions of years, but then some event causes it to begin collapsing down under its own gravity. For example when galaxies collide, regions of cold gas are given the kick they need to start collapsing. It can also happen when the shockwave of a nearby supernova passes through a region.
As it collapses, the interstellar cloud breaks up into smaller and smaller pieces, and each one of these collapses inward on itself. Each of these pieces will become a star. As the cloud collapses, the gravitational energy causes it to heat up, and the conservation of momentum from all the individual particles causes it to spin.
As the stellar material pulls tighter and tighter together, it heats up pushing against further gravitational collapse. At this point, the object is known as a protostar. Surrounding the protostar is a circumstellar disk of additional material. Some of this continues to spiral inward, layering additional mass onto the star. The rest will remain in place and eventually form a planetary system.
Depending on the stars mass, the protostar phase of stellar evolution will be short compared to its overall life span. For those that have one Solar Mass (i.e the same mass as our Sun), it lasts about 1000,000 years.
T Tauri Star:
A T Tauri star begins when material stops falling onto the protostar, and it’s releasing a tremendous amount of energy. They are so-named because of the prototype star used to research this phase of solar evolution – T Tauri, a variable star located in the direction of the Hyades cluster, about 600 light years from Earth.
A T Tauri star may be bright, but this all comes its gravitational energy from the collapsing material. The central temperature of a T Tauri star isn’t enough to support fusion at its core. Even so, T Tauri stars can appear as bright as main sequence stars. The T Tauri phase lasts for about 100 million years, after which the star will enter the longest phase of its development – the Main Sequence phase.
Eventually, the core temperature of a star will reach the point that fusion its core can begin. This is the process that all stars go through as they convert protons of hydrogen, through several stages, into atoms of helium. This reaction is exothermic; it gives off more heat than it requires, and so the core of a main sequence star releases a tremendous amount of energy.
This energy starts out as gamma rays in the core of the star, but as it takes a long slow journey out of the star, it drops down in wavelength. All of this light pushes outward on the star, and counteracts the gravitational force pulling it inward. A star at this stage of life is held in balance – as long as its supplies of hydrogen fuel lasts.
And how long does it last? It depends on the mass of the star. The least massive stars, like red dwarfs with half the mass of the Sun, can sip away at their fuel for hundreds of billions and even trillions of years. Larger stars, like our Sun will typically sit in the main sequence phase for 10-15 billion years. The largest stars have the shortest lives, and can last a few billion, and even just a few million years.
Over the course of its life, a star is converting hydrogen into helium at its core. This helium builds up and the hydrogen fuel runs out. When a star exhausts its fuel of hydrogen at its core, its internal nuclear reactions stop. Without this light pressure, the star begins to contract inward through gravity.
This process heats up a shell of hydrogen around the core which then ignites in fusion and causes the star to brighten up again, by a factor of 1,000-10,000. This causes the outer layers of the star to expand outward, increasing the size of the star many times. Our own Sun is expected to bloat out to a sphere that reaches all the way out to the orbit of the Earth.
The temperature and pressure at the core of the star will eventually reach the point that helium can be fused into carbon. Once a star reaches this point, it contracts down and is no longer a red giant. Stars much more massive than our Sun can continue on in this process, moving up the table of elements creating heavier and heavier atoms.
A star with the mass of our Sun doesn’t have the gravitational pressure to fuse carbon, so once it runs out of helium at its core, it’s effectively dead. The star will eject its outer layers into space, and then contract down, eventually becoming a white dwarf. This stellar remnant might start out hot, but it has no fusion reactions taking place inside it any more. It will cool down over hundreds of billions of years, eventually becoming the background temperature of the Universe.