If Mars ever had water flowing on its surface, as the many canyons and riverbed-like features on the Red Planet seem to indicate, it also would have needed a thicker atmosphere than what encircles that planet today. New research has revealed that Mars did indeed have a thick atmosphere for about 100 million years after the planet was formed. But the only thing flowing on Mars’ surface at that time was an ocean of molten rock.
A study of Martian meteorites found on Earth shows that Mars had a magma ocean for millions of years, which is surprisingly long, according to Qing-Zhu Yin, assistant professor of geology at the University of California- Davis. For such a persistent event, a thick atmosphere had to blanket Mars to allow the planet to cool slowly.
Meteorites called shergottites were studied to document volcanic activities on Mars between 470 million and 165 million years ago. These rocks were later thrown out of Mars’ gravity field by asteroid impacts and delivered to Earth — a free “sample return mission” as the scientists called it — accomplished by nature.
By precisely measuring the ratios of different isotopes of neodymium and samarium, the researchers could measure the age of the meteorites, and then use them to work out what the crust of Mars was like billions of years before that. Previous estimates for how long the surface remained molten ranged from thousands of years to several hundred million years.
The research was conducted by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, UC Davis and the Johnson Space Center.
Planets form by dust and rocks coming together to form planetisimals, and then these small planets collide together to form larger planets. The giant collisions in this final phase would release huge amounts of energy with nowhere to go except back into the new planet. The rock would turn to molten magma and heavy metals would sink to the core of the planet, releasing additional energy. The molten mantle eventually cools to form a solid crust on the surface.
Although Mars appears to no longer be volcanically active, NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft discovered that the Red Planet hasn’t completely cooled since its formation 4.5 billion years ago. Data from MGS in 2003 indicated that Mars’ core is made either of entirely liquid iron, or it has a solid iron center surrounded by molten iron.
Original News Source: UC Davis Press Release
Astronomers believe the Earth formed out of a ring of gas and dust surrounding the Sun. Over the course of several million years, dust particles stuck together, and then collided with larger and larger chunks until all the material in the ring formed up into a single planet. The heavier elements separated from the lighter elements, and sunk down into the centre of the Earth. And if astronomers are right, it’s happening all over again, in a star system 424 light-years away; another Earth is under construction.
The discovery was announced today by physicists from the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University. Using data gathered by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, the researchers have uncovered a dust belt around a star called HD 113766. And if the theories of planetary formation are correct, this dust belt will eventually turn into a planet with roughly the mass of the Earth.
To make things even more interesting, this dust belt is located in the star’s habitable zone, where liquid water could exist on any rocky planet that forms in the region.
And the timing is right too. Here’s one of the researchers, Dr. Carey Lisse, “If the system was too young, its planet-forming disk would be full of gas, and it would be making gas-giant planets like Jupiter instead. If the system was too old, then dust aggregation or clumping would have already occurred and all the system’s rocky planets would have already formed.”
The astronomers can even tell how “processed” this material is. If it were totally unprocessed, it would be like the comets, icy remnants largely unchanged since the early Solar System. And if it was heavily processed, it would be like the asteroids, where the heavy elements have almost completely separated from the lighter elements. Instead, it’s all mixed up.
The rocky planets haven’t formed yet.
The paper will be published in an upcoming edition of the Astrophysical Journal.
Original Source: APL News Release
Even though our Solar System’s gas giants vary widely in size and mass, they do have something in common. Each planet is roughly 10,000 times more massive than the combined mass of all their moons. During planetary formation, rocky moons grew out of the solid material surrounding each planet. As these moons grew larger, leftover gas slowed them down, and they fell into the planet to be consumed. The moons we see today were the last ones to form around their parent planets, after the gas had dissipated.
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