Sand dunes on Mars are fascinating. They shift and move in different ways than they do on Earth, and they can grow to much more immense sizes than on our own planet. Several conditions contribute to the gigantic sand dunes and large fields of dunes that can form on the Red Planet, including its low gravity and air pressure.

Seasonal changes affect the Martian sand dunes, as well.

This new image from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) camera shows seasonal frost that has formed on a field of dunes inside a crater.  In fall and winter, temperatures plunge to a point where CO2 ice forms and creates deposits on the sides of the dunes.  

MRO has been orbiting Mars since March of 2006, and over the 15 year lifetime of this mission, scientists have been able to observe seasonal changes on dunes like these. They know that in the Martian spring, those ice deposits will heat up, causing instabilities and outgassing that can change the dunes’ shapes and even create gullies and other features. You can read more about research into that process here.

A large field of dunes inside a crater in Mars’ northern hemisphere. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

This field of sand dunes lies inside a 5-kilometer diameter crater in the high-latitudes of the northern plains of Mars. In the larger image, you can see how some dunes have separated from the main field and appear to be climbing up the crater slope along a gully-like form. Other dunes can be seen outside the crater as well.

You can explore a larger version of this picture, as well as see all the spectacular images captured by HiRISE on the instrument’s website.

These gullies are on the dunes of Russell Crater on Mars. This image was taken during winter, and the frozen carbon dioxide on the shaded slopes. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
Nancy Atkinson

Nancy has been with Universe Today since 2004, and has published over 6,000 articles on space exploration, astronomy, science and technology. She is the author of two books: "Eight Years to the Moon: the History of the Apollo Missions," (2019) which shares the stories of 60 engineers and scientists who worked behind the scenes to make landing on the Moon possible; and "Incredible Stories from Space: A Behind-the-Scenes Look at the Missions Changing Our View of the Cosmos" (2016) tells the stories of those who work on NASA's robotic missions to explore the Solar System and beyond. Follow Nancy on Twitter at and and Instagram at and

Recent Posts

A Recently Discovered Double Binary System is Unstable. Stars Could Collide, Leading to a Supernova

A quadruple binary star system may reveal a common source of the supernovae we use…

21 hours ago

Cosmic Rays can Help Keep the World's Clocks in Sync

The world has a robust, accurate timekeeping system that regulates our clocks. Humanity uses it…

22 hours ago

A CubeSat is Flying to the Moon to Make Sure Lunar Gateway’s Orbit is Actually Stable

To validate the Lunar Gateway's orbit around the lunar poles (a halo orbit), NASA is…

2 days ago

What’s the Right Depth to Search for Life on Icy Worlds?

Are we alone? Is there life beyond Earth? These are the questions that plague the…

4 days ago

Astronomers Finally Catch a Nova Detonating on a White Dwarf as it's Happening

On July 7, 2020, the X-ray instrument eROSITA captured an astronomical event that – until…

4 days ago

This is it! Meet the Supermassive Black Hole at the Heart of the Milky Way

The Event Horizon Telescope has just released the first images of Sagittarius A*, the supermassive…

4 days ago